Prof Fredrik Karpe
|Research Area:||Integrative Physiology (Systems Biology)|
|Technology Exchange:||Drug discovery, Mass spectrometry, SNP typing and Transcript profiling|
|Scientific Themes:||Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism and Genes, Genetics, Epigenetics & Genomics|
|Keywords:||integrative physiology, obesity, human metabolism, type 2 diabetes, biobanks and genetic epidemiology|
Fredrik Karpe’s group is doing research human adipose tissue function and metabolic consequences of obesity. With increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes, this is an area of unmet clinical need. We are intrigued by strong epidemiological data suggesting opposite associations between the risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease vs. upper and lower body obesity. The current research line aims to clarify protective role of gluteofemoral adipose tissue and the metabolically detrimental role of abdominal adipose tissue by studying the tissues at both cellular and whole body level. If one could impose the specialized features of gluteofemoral fat to other tissues, this may lead to interesting new therapeutic approaches.
Human whole body physiological studies are supported by a dedicated mass spectrometry unit where metabolic tracers (stable-isotope labelled fatty acids and other molecules) are analysed.
Work on human adipocytes allows for mechanistic dissection of function: we are here using siRNA, studies of epigenetic markers and microRNA to separate the functional characteristics of different adipocyte subtypes.
Translational work is also much supported by the Oxford Biobank established by the PI in 2001. This currently includes just over 7,500 healthy population-based 30-50 year old men and women resident in Oxfordshire. Participants have consented to be re-approached for a “recruit-by-genotype” participation in physiological studies of complex intermediary phenotypes (www.oxfordbiobank.org.uk).
|Dr Adrian L Harris (MPLS)||University of Oxford||United Kingdom|
|Prof Anna L Gloyn||OCDEM||University of Oxford||United Kingdom|
|Prof Mark McCarthy||OCDEM||University of Oxford||United Kingdom|
|Prof Michael Wakelam||Babraham Institute||United Kingdom|
|Prof Krish Chatterjee||University of Cambridge||United Kingdom|
|Dr Constantinos Christodoulides MRCP||OCDEM||University of Oxford||United Kingdom|
|Prof Leanne Hodson||OCDEM||University of Oxford||United Kingdom|
|Stephen O'Rahilly||University of Cambridge||United Kingdom|
|Gunilla Olivecrona||University of Umea||Sweden|
|Brian Walker||University of Edinburgh||United Kingdom|
The distribution of adipose tissue in the body has wide-ranging and reproducible associations with health and disease. Accumulation of adipose tissue in the upper body (abdominal obesity) is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and even all-cause mortality. Conversely, accumulation of fat in the lower body (gluteofemoral obesity) shows opposite associations with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus when adjusted for overall fat mass. The abdominal depots are characterized by rapid uptake of predominantly diet-derived fat and a high lipid turnover that is easily stimulated by adrenergic receptor activation. The lower-body fat stores have a reduced lipid turnover with a capacity to accommodate fat undergoing redistribution. Lower-body adipose tissue also seems to retain the capacity to recruit additional adipocytes as a result of weight gain and demonstrates fewer signs of inflammatory insult. New data suggest that the profound functional differences between the upper-body and lower-body tissues are controlled by site-specific sets of developmental genes, such as HOXA6, HOXA5, HOXA3, IRX2 and TBX5 in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and HOTAIR, SHOX2 and HOXC11 in gluteofemoral adipose tissue, which are under epigenetic control. This Review discusses the developmental and functional differences between upper-body and lower-body fat depots and provides mechanistic insight into the disease-protective effects of lower-body fat. Hide abstract
Upper- and lower-body fat depots exhibit opposing associations with obesity-related metabolic disease. We defined the relationship between DEXA-quantified fat depots and diabetes/cardiovascular risk factors in a healthy population-based cohort (n = 3,399). Gynoid fat mass correlated negatively with insulin resistance after total fat mass adjustment, whereas the opposite was seen for abdominal fat. Paired transcriptomic analysis of gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue (GSAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) was performed across the BMI spectrum (n = 49; 21.4-45.5 kg/m(2)). In both depots, energy-generating metabolic genes were negatively associated and inflammatory genes were positively associated with obesity. However, associations were significantly weaker in GSAT. At the systemic level, arteriovenous release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (n = 34) was lower from GSAT than ASAT. Isolated preadipocytes retained a depot-specific transcriptional "memory" of embryonic developmental genes and exhibited differential promoter DNA methylation of selected genes (HOTAIR, TBX5) between GSAT and ASAT. Short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing identified TBX5 as a regulator of preadipocyte proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in ASAT. In conclusion, intrinsic differences in the expression of developmental genes in regional adipocytes provide a mechanistic basis for diversity in adipose tissue (AT) function. The less inflammatory nature of lower-body AT offers insight into the opposing metabolic disease risk associations between upper- and lower-body obesity. Hide abstract
OBJECTIVE: Fat distribution is an important variable explaining metabolic heterogeneity of obesity. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is divided by the Scarpa's fascia into a deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (dSAT) and a superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (sSAT) layer. This study sought to characterize functional differences between the two SAT layers to explore their relative contribution to metabolic traits and cardiovascular risk (CVR) profile. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 371 Caucasians consecutively from a local random, population-based screening project in Oxford and 25 Asian Indians from the local community. The depth of the SAT layers was determined by ultrasound (US), and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies were performed under US guidance in a subgroup of 43 Caucasians. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass was quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. RESULTS: Male adiposity in both ethnic groups was characterized by a disproportionate expansion of dSAT, which was strongly correlated with VAT mass. dSAT depth was a strong predictor of global insulin resistance (IR; homeostatic model assessment of IR), liver-specific IR (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1), and Framingham risk score independently of other measures of adiposity in men. Moreover, dSAT had higher expression of proinflammatory, lipogenic, and lipolytic genes and contained higher proportions of saturated fatty acids. There was increased proportion of small adipocytes in dSAT. CONCLUSIONS: SAT is heterogeneous; dSAT expands disproportionally more than sSAT with increasing obesity in Caucasian males (confirmed also in Asian Indians). Its expansion is related to increased CVR independent of other adiposity measures, and it has biological properties suggestive of higher metabolic activity contributing to global IR. Hide abstract
Background Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in three known genes. DNA-based cascade testing is recommended by UK guidelines to identify affected relatives; however, about 60% of patients are mutation-negative. We assessed the hypothesis that familial hypercholesterolaemia can also be caused by an accumulation of common small-effect LDL-C-raising alleles. Methods In November, 2011, we assembled a sample of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia from three UKbased sources and compared them with a healthy control sample from the UK Whitehall II (WHII) study. We also studied patients from a Belgian lipid clinic (Hopital de Jolimont, Haine St-Paul, Belgium) for validation analyses. We genotyped participants for 12 common LDL-C-raising alleles identified by the Global Lipid Genetics Consortium and constructed a weighted LDL-C-raising gene score. We compared the gene score distribution among patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia with no confirmed mutation, those with an identified mutation, and controls from WHII. Findings We recruited 321 mutation-negative UK patients (451 Belgian), 319 mutation-positive UK patients (273 Belgian), and 3020 controls from WHII. The mean weighted LDL-C gene score of the WHII participants (0.90 [SD 0.23]) was strongly associated with LDL-C concentration (p=1.4 × 10-77; R2=0.11). Mutation-negative UK patients had a significantly higher mean weighted LDL-C score (1.0 [SD 0.21]) than did WHII controls (p=4.5 × 10-16), as did the mutation-negative Belgian patients (0.99 [0.19]; p=5.2 × 10 -20). The score was also higher in UK (0.95 [0.20]; p=1.6 × 10-5) and Belgian (0.92 [0.20]; p=0.04) mutation-positive patients than in WHII controls. 167 (52%) of 321 mutation-negative UK patients had a score within the top three deciles of the WHII weighted LDL-C gene score distribution, and only 35 (11%) fell within the lowest three deciles. Interpretation In a substantial proportion of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia without a known mutation, their raised LDL-C concentrations might have a polygenic cause, which could compromise the efficiency of cascade testing. In patients with a detected mutation, a substantial polygenic contribution might add to the variable penetrance of the disease. Hide abstract
The expansion of lower-body adipose tissue (AT) is paradoxically associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk. We examined whether the beneficial metabolic properties of lower-body AT are related to the production and release of the insulin-sensitizing lipokine palmitoleate (16:1n-7). Using venoarterial difference sampling, we investigated the relative release of 16:1n-7 from lower-body (gluteofemoral) and upper-body (abdominal subcutaneous) AT depots. Paired gluteofemoral and abdominal subcutaneous AT samples were analyzed for triglyceride fatty acid composition and mRNA expression. Finally, the triglyceride fatty acid composition of isolated human preadipocytes was determined. Relative release of 16:1n-7 was markedly higher from gluteofemoral AT compared with abdominal subcutaneous AT. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the key enzyme involved in endogenous 16:1n-7 production, was more highly expressed in gluteofemoral AT and was associated with greater enrichment of 16:1n-7. Furthermore, isolated human preadipocytes from gluteofemoral AT displayed a higher content of SCD1-derived fatty acids. We demonstrate that human gluteofemoral AT plays a major role in determining systemic concentrations of the lipokine palmitoleate. Moreover, this appears to be an inherent feature of gluteofemoral AT. We propose that the beneficial metabolic properties of lower-body AT may be partly explained by the intrinsically greater production and release of palmitoleate. Hide abstract
BMJ, 344 (7860), pp. e3228. | Read more2012. Familial hypercholesterolaemia.
Diabetes, 60 (10), pp. 2441-2449. | Read more2011. Fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance: time for a reevaluation.
OBJECTIVE: Lipotoxicity and ectopic fat deposition reduce insulin signaling. It is not clear whether excess fat deposition in nonadipose tissue arises from excessive fatty acid delivery from adipose tissue or from impaired adipose tissue storage of ingested fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To investigate this we used a whole-body integrative physiological approach with multiple and simultaneous stable-isotope fatty acid tracers to assess delivery and transport of endogenous and exogenous fatty acid in adipose tissue over a diurnal cycle in lean (n = 9) and abdominally obese men (n = 10). RESULTS: Abdominally obese men had substantially (2.5-fold) greater adipose tissue mass than lean control subjects, but the rates of delivery of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were downregulated, resulting in normal systemic NEFA concentrations over a 24-h period. However, adipose tissue fat storage after meals was substantially depressed in the obese men. This was especially so for chylomicron-derived fatty acids, representing the direct storage pathway for dietary fat. Adipose tissue from the obese men showed a transcriptional signature consistent with this impaired fat storage function. CONCLUSIONS: Enlargement of adipose tissue mass leads to an appropriate downregulation of systemic NEFA delivery with maintained plasma NEFA concentrations. However the implicit reduction in adipose tissue fatty acid uptake goes beyond this and shows a maladaptive response with a severely impaired pathway for direct dietary fat storage. This adipose tissue response to obesity may provide the pathophysiological basis for ectopic fat deposition and lipotoxicity. Hide abstract
CONTEXT: Absence or excess of adipose tissue are both associated with metabolic complications, implying the importance of well-functioning adipose tissue present in normal amounts. Adipose tissue sequesters dietary fat and thus protects other tissues from excess fat exposure, especially after meals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was the use of an integrative physiological technique to quantify trafficking of fatty acids (FAs) in adipose tissue over a 24 h period. METHODS: Adipose tissue FA handling was studied in response to three meals in eight healthy men by the combination of arteriovenous blood sampling, tissue blood flow, and specific labeling of FA tracing of exogenous and endogenous fat by stable isotope methodology. RESULTS: The efficiency of adipose tissue FA uptake increased robustly with each meal. Chylomicron-triglyceride was the dominating source of FA. Adipose tissue fractional extraction of chylomicron-triglyceride increased from 21 +/- 4 to 47 +/- 8% (P = 0.03) between the first and last meal. Although adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase action increased with time (2-fold), there was an even greater increase in FA reesterification (3-fold), which led to a reduced spillover of chylomicron-derived FA, from 77 +/- 15 to 34 +/- 7% (P = 0.04) comparing the end of the first and the third meal period. Increased uptake of very low-density lipoprotein-derived FA was observed, but spillover of very low-density lipoprotein-derived FA was seen only in the fasting state. CONCLUSION: Human adipose tissue has a significant potential to up-regulate fat storage during a normal day that goes beyond increased lipoprotein lipase activation. The adaptation toward increasing fat storage may provide an explanation for the beneficial properties of normal amounts of adipose tissue. Hide abstract
CONTEXT: PPARG mutations may cause insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, but little is known about the mechanisms of the abnormalities of lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that in PPARG mutations, abnormal adipose tissue triglyceride storage causes insulin resistance. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whole-body and adipose tissue-specific metabolic phenotyping through arteriovenous blood sampling was made before and after a mixed meal including 13C-palmitic acid. Studies were performed in a 32-yr-old male with partial lipodystrophy and type 2 diabetes, heterozygous for the PPARG P467L mutation and in an apparently phenotypically normal 32-yr-old male heterozygous for the PPARG n.AAA553T mutation. Comparator groups were age- and sex-matched healthy participants (n=10) and type 2 diabetes sex-matched participants (n=6). RESULTS: The P467L patient had elevated unmodulated fasting and postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, despite a low adipose tissue NEFA output. Instead, NEFA appeared to originate directly from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins: 13C-palmitic acid accumulated rapidly in the NEFA fraction, as a sign of impaired fatty acid trapping in tissues. In contrast to the Pparg haploinsufficient mouse, the patient with n.AAA553T mutation did not exhibit paradoxically insulin sensitive and showed a mostly normal metabolic pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The lipodystrophic PPARG P467L phenotype include excessive and uncontrolled generation of NEFA directly from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, explaining high systemic NEFA concentrations, whereas the human PPARG haploinsufficiency is metabolically almost normal. Hide abstract
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta agonists and transgenic overexpression of PPARdelta in mice suggest amelioration of features of the metabolic syndrome through enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize a similar mechanism operates in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The PPARdelta agonist (10 mg o.d. GW501516), a comparator PPARalpha agonist (20 mug o.d. GW590735), and placebo were given in a double-blind, randomized, three-parallel group, 2-week study to six healthy moderately overweight subjects in each group. Metabolic evaluation was made before and after treatment including liver fat quantification, fasting blood samples, a 6-h meal tolerance test with stable isotope fatty acids, skeletal muscle biopsy for gene expression, and urinary isoprostanes for global oxidative stress. RESULTS: Treatment with GW501516 showed statistically significant reductions in fasting plasma triglycerides (-30%), apolipoprotein B (-26%), LDL cholesterol (-23%), and insulin (-11%), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. A 20% reduction in liver fat content (P < 0.05) and 30% reduction in urinary isoprostanes (P = 0.01) were also observed. Except for a lowering of triglycerides (-30%, P < 0.05), none of these changes were observed in response to GW590735. The relative proportion of exhaled CO(2) directly originating from the fat content of the meal was increased (P < 0.05) in response to GW501516, and skeletal muscle expression of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1b (CPT1b) was also significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: The PPARdelta agonist GW501516 reverses multiple abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome without increasing oxidative stress. The effect is probably caused by increased fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. Hide abstract
Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass. Hide abstract