Prof Fredrik Karpe

Research Area: Integrative Physiology (Systems Biology)
Technology Exchange: Drug discovery, Mass spectrometry, SNP typing and Transcript profiling
Scientific Themes: Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism and Genes, Genetics, Epigenetics & Genomics
Keywords: integrative physiology, obesity, human metabolism, type 2 diabetes, biobanks and genetic epidemiology
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Fredrik Karpe’s group is doing research human adipose tissue function and metabolic consequences of obesity. With increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes, this is an area of unmet clinical need. We are intrigued by strong epidemiological data suggesting opposite associations between the risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease vs. upper and lower body obesity. The current research line aims to clarify protective role of gluteofemoral adipose tissue and the metabolically detrimental role of abdominal adipose tissue by studying the tissues at both cellular and whole body level. If one could impose the specialized features of gluteofemoral fat to other tissues, this may lead to interesting new therapeutic approaches.

Human whole body physiological studies are supported by a dedicated mass spectrometry unit where metabolic tracers (stable-isotope labelled fatty acids and other molecules) are analysed.

Work on human adipocytes allows for mechanistic dissection of function: we are here using siRNA, studies of epigenetic markers and microRNA to separate the functional characteristics of different adipocyte subtypes.

Translational work is also much supported by the Oxford Biobank established by the PI in 2001. This currently includes just over 7,500 healthy population-based 30-50 year old men and women resident in Oxfordshire. Participants have consented to be re-approached for a “recruit-by-genotype” participation in physiological studies of complex intermediary phenotypes (www.oxfordbiobank.org.uk).

Name Department Institution Country
Dr Adrian L Harris (MPLS) University of Oxford United Kingdom
Prof Anna L Gloyn OCDEM Oxford University, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism United Kingdom
Prof Mark McCarthy OCDEM Oxford University, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism United Kingdom
Professor Michael Wakelam Babraham Institute United Kingdom
Prof Krish Chatterjee University of Cambridge United Kingdom
Dr Constantinos Christodoulides MRCP OCDEM Oxford University, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism United Kingdom
Prof Leanne Hodson OCDEM Oxford University, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism United Kingdom
Stephen O'Rahilly University of Cambridge United Kingdom
Gunilla Olivecrona University of Umea Sweden
Brian Walker University of Edinburgh United Kingdom
Ooi EM, Chan DC, Hodson L, Adiels M, Boren J, Karpe F, Fielding BA, Watts GF, Barrett PH. 2016. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in women: roles of apoC-II and apoC-III. Eur J Clin Invest, 46 (8), pp. 730-736. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Experimental data suggest that apolipoprotein (apo) C-II and C-III regulate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism, but there are limited studies in humans. We investigated the metabolic associations of TRLs with apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations and kinetics in women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The kinetics of plasma apoC-II, apoC-III and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoB-100 and triglycerides were measured in the postabsorptive state using stable isotopic techniques and compartmental modelling in 60 women with wide-ranging body mass index (19·5-32·9 kg/m(2) ). RESULTS: Plasma apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations were positively associated with the concentrations of plasma triglycerides, VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride (all P < 0·05). ApoC-II production rate (PR) was positively associated with VLDL1 -apoB-100 concentration, VLDL1 triglyceride concentration and VLDL1 triglyceride PR, while apoC-II fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was positively associated with VLDL1 triglyceride FCR (all P < 0·05). No significant associations were observed between apoC-II and VLDL2 apoB-100 or triglyceride kinetics. ApoC-III PR, but not FCR, was positively associated with VLDL1 triglyceride, and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride concentrations (all P < 0·05). No significant associations were observed between apoC-III and VLDL-apoB-100 and triglyceride kinetics. In multivariable analysis, including homoeostasis model assessment score, menopausal status and obesity, apoC-II concentration was significantly associated with plasma triglyceride, VLDL1 -apoB-100 and VLDL1 triglyceride concentrations and PR. Using the same multivariable analysis, apoC-III was significantly associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride concentrations and FCR. CONCLUSIONS: In women, plasma apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations are regulated by their respective PR and are significant, independent determinants of the kinetics and plasma concentrations of TRLs.

Pramfalk C, Pavlides M, Banerjee R, McNeil CA, Neubauer S, Karpe F, Hodson L. 2016. Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentrations Are Associated With Changes in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis and Partitioning Prior to Changes in Liver Fat Content in Healthy Adults. Diabetes, 65 (7), pp. 1858-1867. | Show Abstract | Read more

Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin <11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin >11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways promoting fat accumulation are enhanced in HI but, paradoxically, without any significant effect on liver fat content when observed in healthy people. This is likely to be explained by increased triglyceride secretion as observed by hypertriglyceridemia.

Taylor JC, Martin HC, Lise S, Broxholme J, Cazier JB, Rimmer A, Kanapin A, Lunter G et al. 2015. Factors influencing success of clinical genome sequencing across a broad spectrum of disorders. Nat Genet, 47 (7), pp. 717-726. | Show Abstract | Read more

To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies for variant calling, filtering, annotation and prioritization. We found that jointly calling variants across samples, filtering against both local and external databases, deploying multiple annotation tools and using familial transmission above biological plausibility contributed to accuracy. Overall, we identified disease-causing variants in 21% of cases, with the proportion increasing to 34% (23/68) for mendelian disorders and 57% (8/14) in family trios. We also discovered 32 potentially clinically actionable variants in 18 genes unrelated to the referral disorder, although only 4 were ultimately considered reportable. Our results demonstrate the value of genome sequencing for routine clinical diagnosis but also highlight many outstanding challenges.

Karpe F, Pinnick KE. 2015. Biology of upper-body and lower-body adipose tissue - Link to whole-body phenotypes Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 11 (2), pp. 90-100. | Show Abstract | Read more

© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.The distribution of adipose tissue in the body has wide-ranging and reproducible associations with health and disease. Accumulation of adipose tissue in the upper body (abdominal obesity) is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and even all-cause mortality. Conversely, accumulation of fat in the lower body (gluteofemoral obesity) shows opposite associations with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus when adjusted for overall fat mass. The abdominal depots are characterized by rapid uptake of predominantly diet-derived fat and a high lipid turnover that is easily stimulated by adrenergic receptor activation. The lower-body fat stores have a reduced lipid turnover with a capacity to accommodate fat undergoing redistribution. Lower-body adipose tissue also seems to retain the capacity to recruit additional adipocytes as a result of weight gain and demonstrates fewer signs of inflammatory insult. New data suggest that the profound functional differences between the upper-body and lower-body tissues are controlled by site-specific sets of developmental genes, such as HOXA6, HOXA5, HOXA3, IRX2 and TBX5 in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and HOTAIR, SHOX2 and HOXC11 in gluteofemoral adipose tissue, which are under epigenetic control. This Review discusses the developmental and functional differences between upper-body and lower-body fat depots and provides mechanistic insight into the disease-protective effects of lower-body fat.

Shungin D, Winkler TW, Croteau-Chonka DC, Ferreira T, Locke AE, Mägi R, Strawbridge RJ, Pers TH et al. 2015. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution. Nature, 518 (7538), pp. 187-196. | Show Abstract | Read more

Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

Locke AE, Kahali B, Berndt SI, Justice AE, Pers TH, Day FR, Powell C, Vedantam S et al. 2015. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. Nature, 518 (7538), pp. 197-206. | Show Abstract | Read more

Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

Hilton C, Karpe F, Pinnick KE. 2015. Role of developmental transcription factors in white, brown and beige adipose tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1851 (5), pp. 686-696. | Show Abstract | Read more

In this review we discuss the role of developmental transcription factors in adipose tissue biology with a focus on how these developmental genes may contribute to regional variation in adipose tissue distribution and function. Regional, depot-specific, differences in lipid handling and signalling (lipolysis, lipid storage and adipokine/lipokine signalling) are important determinants of metabolic health. At a cellular level, preadipocytes removed from their original depot and cultured in vitro retain depot-specific functional properties, implying that these are intrinsic to the cells and not a function of their environment in situ. High throughput screening has identified a number of developmental transcription factors involved in embryological development, including members of the Homeobox and T-Box gene families, that are strongly differentially expressed between regional white adipose tissue depots and also between brown and white adipose tissue. However, the significance of depot-specific developmental signatures remains unclear. Developmental transcription factors determine body patterning during embryogenesis. The divergent developmental origins of regional adipose tissue depots may explain their differing functional characteristics. There is evidence from human genetics that developmental genes determine adipose tissue distribution: in GWAS studies a number of developmental genes have been identified as being correlated with anthropometric measures of adiposity and fat distribution. Additionally, compelling functional studies have recently implicated developmental genes in both white adipogenesis and the so-called 'browning' of white adipose tissue. Understanding the genetic and developmental pathways in adipose tissue may help uncover novel ways to intervene with the function of adipose tissue in order to promote health.

Loh NY, Neville MJ, Marinou K, Hardcastle SA, Fielding BA, Duncan EL, McCarthy MI, Tobias JH, Gregson CL, Karpe F, Christodoulides C. 2015. LRP5 regulates human body fat distribution by modulating adipose progenitor biology in a dose- and depot-specific fashion. Cell Metab, 21 (2), pp. 262-272. | Show Abstract | Read more

Common variants in WNT pathway genes have been associated with bone mass and fat distribution, the latter predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Rare mutations in the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 are similarly associated with bone and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the role of LRP5 in human adipose tissue. Subjects with gain-of-function LRP5 mutations and high bone mass had enhanced lower-body fat accumulation. Reciprocally, a low bone mineral density-associated common LRP5 allele correlated with increased abdominal adiposity. Ex vivo LRP5 expression was higher in abdominal versus gluteal adipocyte progenitors. Equivalent knockdown of LRP5 in both progenitor types dose-dependently impaired β-catenin signaling and led to distinct biological outcomes: diminished gluteal and enhanced abdominal adipogenesis. These data highlight how depot differences in WNT/β-catenin pathway activity modulate human fat distribution via effects on adipocyte progenitor biology. They also identify LRP5 as a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders.

Amisten S, Neville M, Hawkes R, Persaud SJ, Karpe F, Salehi A. 2015. An atlas of G-protein coupled receptor expression and function in human subcutaneous adipose tissue Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 146 pp. 61-93. | Show Abstract | Read more

© 2014 Elsevier Inc.G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in the regulation of adipose tissue function, but the total number of GPCRs expressed by human subcutaneous adipose tissue, as well as their function and interactions with drugs, is poorly understood. We have constructed an atlas of all GPCRs expressed by human subcutaneous adipose tissue: the 'adipose tissue GPCRome', to support the exploration of novel control nodes in metabolic and endocrine functions. This atlas describes how adipose tissue GPCRs regulate lipolysis, insulin resistance and adiponectin and leptin secretion. We also discuss how adipose tissue GPCRs interact with their endogenous ligands and with GPCR-targeting drugs, with a focus on how drug/receptor interactions may affect lipolysis, and present a model predicting how GPCRs with unknown effects on lipolysis might modulate cAMP-regulated lipolysis. Subcutaneous adipose tissue expresses 163 GPCRs, a majority of which have unknown effects on lipolysis, insulin resistance and adiponectin and leptin secretion. These GPCRs are activated by 180 different endogenous ligands, and are the targets of a large number of clinically used drugs. We identified 119 drugs, acting on 23 GPCRs, that are predicted to stimulate lipolysis and 173 drugs, acting on 25 GPCRs, that are predicted to inhibit lipolysis. This atlas highlights knowledge gaps in the current understanding of adipose tissue GPCR function, and identifies GPCR/ligand/drug interactions that might affect lipolysis, which is important for understanding and predicting metabolic side effects of drugs. This approach may aid in the design of new, safer therapeutic agents, with fewer undesired effects on lipid homeostasis.

Mahajan A, Sim X, Ng HJ, Manning A, Rivas MA, Highland HM, Locke AE, Grarup N et al. 2015. Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus. PLoS Genet, 11 (1), pp. e1004876. | Show Abstract | Read more

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights.

Loft A, Forss I, Siersbæk MS, Schmidt SF, Larsen AS, Madsen JG, Pisani DF, Nielsen R et al. 2015. Browning of human adipocytes requires KLF11 and reprogramming of PPARγ superenhancers. Genes Dev, 29 (1), pp. 7-22. | Show Abstract | Read more

Long-term exposure to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists such as rosiglitazone induces browning of rodent and human adipocytes; however, the transcriptional mechanisms governing this phenotypic switch in adipocytes are largely unknown. Here we show that rosiglitazone-induced browning of human adipocytes activates a comprehensive gene program that leads to increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Once induced, this gene program and oxidative capacity are maintained independently of rosiglitazone, suggesting that additional browning factors are activated. Browning triggers reprogramming of PPARγ binding, leading to the formation of PPARγ "superenhancers" that are selective for brown-in-white (brite) adipocytes. These are highly associated with key brite-selective genes. Based on such an association, we identified an evolutionarily conserved metabolic regulator, Kruppel-like factor 11 (KLF11), as a novel browning transcription factor in human adipocytes that is required for rosiglitazone-induced browning, including the increase in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. KLF11 is directly induced by PPARγ and appears to cooperate with PPARγ in a feed-forward manner to activate and maintain the brite-selective gene program.

Karpe F, Pinnick KE. 2015. Biology of upper-body and lower-body adipose tissue--link to whole-body phenotypes. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 11 (2), pp. 90-100. | Show Abstract | Read more

The distribution of adipose tissue in the body has wide-ranging and reproducible associations with health and disease. Accumulation of adipose tissue in the upper body (abdominal obesity) is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and even all-cause mortality. Conversely, accumulation of fat in the lower body (gluteofemoral obesity) shows opposite associations with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus when adjusted for overall fat mass. The abdominal depots are characterized by rapid uptake of predominantly diet-derived fat and a high lipid turnover that is easily stimulated by adrenergic receptor activation. The lower-body fat stores have a reduced lipid turnover with a capacity to accommodate fat undergoing redistribution. Lower-body adipose tissue also seems to retain the capacity to recruit additional adipocytes as a result of weight gain and demonstrates fewer signs of inflammatory insult. New data suggest that the profound functional differences between the upper-body and lower-body tissues are controlled by site-specific sets of developmental genes, such as HOXA6, HOXA5, HOXA3, IRX2 and TBX5 in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and HOTAIR, SHOX2 and HOXC11 in gluteofemoral adipose tissue, which are under epigenetic control. This Review discusses the developmental and functional differences between upper-body and lower-body fat depots and provides mechanistic insight into the disease-protective effects of lower-body fat.

Bensaad K, Favaro E, Lewis CA, Peck B, Lord S, Collins JM, Pinnick KE, Wigfield S et al. 2014. Fatty acid uptake and lipid storage induced by HIF-1α contribute to cell growth and survival after hypoxia-reoxygenation. Cell Rep, 9 (1), pp. 349-365. | Show Abstract | Read more

An in vivo model of antiangiogenic therapy allowed us to identify genes upregulated by bevacizumab treatment, including Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 (FABP3) and FABP7, both of which are involved in fatty acid uptake. In vitro, both were induced by hypoxia in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. There was a significant lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in hypoxia that was time and O2 concentration dependent. Knockdown of endogenous expression of FABP3, FABP7, or Adipophilin (an essential LD structural component) significantly impaired LD formation under hypoxia. We showed that LD accumulation is due to FABP3/7-dependent fatty acid uptake while de novo fatty acid synthesis is repressed in hypoxia. We also showed that ATP production occurs via β-oxidation or glycogen degradation in a cell-type-dependent manner in hypoxia-reoxygenation. Finally, inhibition of lipid storage reduced protection against reactive oxygen species toxicity, decreased the survival of cells subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation in vitro, and strongly impaired tumorigenesis in vivo.

Amisten S, Neville M, Hawkes R, Persaud SJ, Karpe F, Salehi A. 2015. An atlas of G-protein coupled receptor expression and function in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Pharmacol Ther, 146 pp. 61-93. | Show Abstract | Read more

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in the regulation of adipose tissue function, but the total number of GPCRs expressed by human subcutaneous adipose tissue, as well as their function and interactions with drugs, is poorly understood. We have constructed an atlas of all GPCRs expressed by human subcutaneous adipose tissue: the 'adipose tissue GPCRome', to support the exploration of novel control nodes in metabolic and endocrine functions. This atlas describes how adipose tissue GPCRs regulate lipolysis, insulin resistance and adiponectin and leptin secretion. We also discuss how adipose tissue GPCRs interact with their endogenous ligands and with GPCR-targeting drugs, with a focus on how drug/receptor interactions may affect lipolysis, and present a model predicting how GPCRs with unknown effects on lipolysis might modulate cAMP-regulated lipolysis. Subcutaneous adipose tissue expresses 163 GPCRs, a majority of which have unknown effects on lipolysis, insulin resistance and adiponectin and leptin secretion. These GPCRs are activated by 180 different endogenous ligands, and are the targets of a large number of clinically used drugs. We identified 119 drugs, acting on 23 GPCRs, that are predicted to stimulate lipolysis and 173 drugs, acting on 25 GPCRs, that are predicted to inhibit lipolysis. This atlas highlights knowledge gaps in the current understanding of adipose tissue GPCR function, and identifies GPCR/ligand/drug interactions that might affect lipolysis, which is important for understanding and predicting metabolic side effects of drugs. This approach may aid in the design of new, safer therapeutic agents, with fewer undesired effects on lipid homeostasis.

Pinnick KE, Brismar K, Karpe F. 2014. Android and gynoid fat are independently associated with hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance in non-diabetic males from the Oxford Biobank DIABETOLOGIA, 57 pp. S248-S249.

Futema M, Plagnol V, Li K, Whittall RA, Neil HA, Seed M, Simon Broome Consortium, Bertolini S et al. 2014. Whole exome sequencing of familial hypercholesterolaemia patients negative for LDLR/APOB/PCSK9 mutations. J Med Genet, 51 (8), pp. 537-544. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease of lipid metabolism, which leads to early coronary heart disease. Mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 can be detected in 80% of definite FH (DFH) patients. This study aimed to identify novel FH-causing genetic variants in patients with no detectable mutation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Exomes of 125 unrelated DFH patients were sequenced, as part of the UK10K project. First, analysis of known FH genes identified 23 LDLR and two APOB mutations, and patients with explained causes of FH were excluded from further analysis. Second, common and rare variants in genes associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis were examined. There was no clear rare variant association in LDL-C GWAS hits; however, there were 29 patients with a high LDL-C SNP score suggestive of polygenic hypercholesterolaemia. Finally, a gene-based burden test for an excess of rare (frequency <0.005) or novel variants in cases versus 1926 controls was performed, with variants with an unlikely functional effect (intronic, synonymous) filtered out. CONCLUSIONS: No major novel locus for FH was detected, with no gene having a functional variant in more than three patients; however, an excess of novel variants was found in 18 genes, of which the strongest candidates included CH25H and INSIG2 (p<4.3×10(-4) and p<3.7×10(-3), respectively). This suggests that the genetic cause of FH in these unexplained cases is likely to be very heterogeneous, which complicates the diagnostic and novel gene discovery process.

Pinnick KE, Nicholson G, Manolopoulos KN, McQuaid SE, Valet P, Frayn KN, Denton N, Min JL et al. 2014. Distinct developmental profile of lower-body adipose tissue defines resistance against obesity-associated metabolic complications. Diabetes, 63 (11), pp. 3785-3797. | Show Abstract | Read more

Upper- and lower-body fat depots exhibit opposing associations with obesity-related metabolic disease. We defined the relationship between DEXA-quantified fat depots and diabetes/cardiovascular risk factors in a healthy population-based cohort (n = 3,399). Gynoid fat mass correlated negatively with insulin resistance after total fat mass adjustment, whereas the opposite was seen for abdominal fat. Paired transcriptomic analysis of gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue (GSAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) was performed across the BMI spectrum (n = 49; 21.4-45.5 kg/m(2)). In both depots, energy-generating metabolic genes were negatively associated and inflammatory genes were positively associated with obesity. However, associations were significantly weaker in GSAT. At the systemic level, arteriovenous release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (n = 34) was lower from GSAT than ASAT. Isolated preadipocytes retained a depot-specific transcriptional "memory" of embryonic developmental genes and exhibited differential promoter DNA methylation of selected genes (HOTAIR, TBX5) between GSAT and ASAT. Short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing identified TBX5 as a regulator of preadipocyte proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in ASAT. In conclusion, intrinsic differences in the expression of developmental genes in regional adipocytes provide a mechanistic basis for diversity in adipose tissue (AT) function. The less inflammatory nature of lower-body AT offers insight into the opposing metabolic disease risk associations between upper- and lower-body obesity.

Marinou K, Hodson L, Vasan SK, Fielding BA, Banerjee R, Brismar K, Koutsilieris M, Clark A, Neville MJ, Karpe F. 2014. Structural and functional properties of deep abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue explain its association with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in men Diabetes Care, 37 (3), pp. 821-829. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE Fat distribution is an important variable explaining metabolic heterogeneity of obesity. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is divided by the Scarpa's fascia into a deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (dSAT) and a superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (sSAT) layer. This study sought to characterize functional differences between the two SAT layers to explore their relative contribution to metabolic traits and cardiovascular risk (CVR) profile. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We recruited 371 Caucasians consecutively from a local random, populationbased screening project in Oxford and 25 Asian Indians fromthe local community. The depth of the SAT layers was determined by ultrasound (US), and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies were performed under US guidance in a subgroup of 43 Caucasians. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass was quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. RESULTS Male adiposity in both ethnic groups was characterized by a disproportionate expansion of dSAT, which was strongly correlated with VAT mass. dSAT depth was a strong predictor of global insulin resistance (IR; homeostatic model assessment of IR), liver-specific IR (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1), and Framingham risk score independently of other measures of adiposity in men. Moreover, dSAT had higher expression of proinflammatory, lipogenic, and lipolytic genes and contained higher proportions of saturated fatty acids. There was increased proportion of small adipocytes in dSAT. CONCLUSIONS SAT is heterogeneous; dSAT expands disproportionally more than sSAT with increasing obesity in Caucasian males (confirmed also in Asian Indians). Its expansion is related to increased CVR independent of other adiposity measures, and it has biological properties suggestive of higher metabolic activity contributing to global IR.© 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

Hilton C, Neville M, Pinnick KE, Mackay K, Karpe F. 2014. Effect of microRNA-196a on regulation of body-fat distribution in man LANCET, 383 pp. 56-56.

Pinnick KE, Karpe F. 2014. Genomics of adipose tissue Frontiers in Diabetes, 23 pp. 122-132. | Show Abstract | Read more

© 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Obesity strongly predisposes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as a myriad of metabolic complications including insulin resistance, ectopic fat deposition, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. During the transition from the lean to obese state, adipose tissue commonly develops dysfunctional features including an impaired capacity to sequester lipids, chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipokine secretion. This deviation from normal function is considered an important component in the aetiology of insulin resistance and T2D. However, not all adipose tissue depots confer equal metabolic risk. Whereas central obesity (visceral and abdominal) is closely associated with the development of metabolic disease, lower-body obesity (thighs and buttocks) has less deleterious effects on metabolic health. Since overall adiposity and body fat distribution both display a strong genetic component, current research aims to understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms which contribute to obesity susceptibility and the pathogenesis of T2DM. Identifying molecular mechanisms which regulate adipose tissue development, function and distribution will aid in the development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of metabolic disorders arising as a consequence of adipose tissue dysfunction.

Hodson L, Harnden K, Banerjee R, Real B, Marinou K, Karpe F, Fielding BA. 2014. Lower resting and total energy expenditure in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity. J Nutr Sci, 3 pp. e3. | Show Abstract | Read more

The menopause is accompanied by increased risk of obesity, altered body fat distribution and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The resulting decrease in RMR should be accompanied by a compensatory change in energy balance to avoid weight gain. We aimed to investigate habitual energy intake and expenditure in pre- and postmenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity. We recruited fifty-one healthy Caucasian women, BMI > 18·5 and <35 kg/m(2), aged 35-45 years (premenopausal, n 26) and 55-65 years (postmenopausal, n 25). Energy intake was measured using 3 d diet diaries and dietary fat quality assessed using adipose tissue fatty acid biomarkers. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry, and total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor. Postmenopausal women had lower RMR and TEE and spent significantly less time undertaking moderate exercise than premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women had a tendency for a lower energy intake, and a similar macronutrient intake but a significantly lower adipose tissue n-6:n-3 ratio (24·6 (se 1·6) v. 37·7 (se 3·1); P < 0·001). The main lifestyle determinant of bone mineral density (which was significantly lower in postmenopausal women) was TEE for premenopausal women, and dietary n-6:n-3 ratio for postmenopausal women. The present results suggest that weight maintenance is achieved in the post- compared with premenopausal status through a combination of reduced energy intake and reduced TEE in a regimen that compromises micronutrient intake and has a negative impact on lean tissue mass. However, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acid intake in postmenopausal women is associated with greater bone mineral density.

Hoggart CJ, Venturini G, Mangino M, Gomez F, Ascari G, Zhao JH, Teumer A, Winkler TW et al. 2014. Novel Approach Identifies SNPs in SLC2A10 and KCNK9 with Evidence for Parent-of-Origin Effect on Body Mass Index PLoS Genetics, 10 (7), pp. e1004508-e1004508. | Show Abstract | Read more

The phenotypic effect of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) depends on their parental origin. We present a novel approach to detect parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in genome-wide genotype data of unrelated individuals. The method exploits increased phenotypic variance in the heterozygous genotype group relative to the homozygous groups. We applied the method to >56,000 unrelated individuals to search for POEs influencing body mass index (BMI). Six lead SNPs were carried forward for replication in five family-based studies (of ~4,000 trios). Two SNPs replicated: the paternal rs2471083-C allele (located near the imprinted KCNK9 gene) and the paternal rs3091869-T allele (located near the SLC2A10 gene) increased BMI equally (beta = 0.11 (SD), P<0.0027) compared to the respective maternal alleles. Real-time PCR experiments of lymphoblastoid cell lines from the CEPH families showed that expression of both genes was dependent on parental origin of the SNPs alleles (P<0.01). Our scheme opens new opportunities to exploit GWAS data of unrelated individuals to identify POEs and demonstrates that they play an important role in adult obesity. © 2014 Hoggart et al.

Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2014. Regulation of human subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow International Journal of Obesity, 38 (8), pp. 1019-1026. | Show Abstract | Read more

Subcutaneous adipose tissue represents about 85% of all body fat. Its major metabolic role is the regulated storage and mobilization of lipid energy. It stores lipid in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), which is mobilized, as required for use by other tissues, in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Neither TG nor NEFA are soluble to any extent in water, and their transport to and out of the tissue requires specialized transport mechanisms and adequate blood flow. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) is therefore tightly linked to the tissue's metabolic functioning. ATBF is relatively high (in the fasting state, similar to that of resting skeletal muscle, when expressed per 100 g tissue) and changes markedly in different physiological states. Those most studied are after ingestion of a meal, when there is normally a marked rise in ATBF, and exercise, when ATBF also increases. Pharmacological studies have helped to define the physiological regulation of ATBF. Adrenergic influences predominate in most situations, but nevertheless the regulation of ATBF is complex and depends on the interplay of many different systems. ATBF is downregulated in obesity (when expressed per 100 g tissue), and its responsiveness to meal intake is reduced. However, there is little evidence that this leads to adipose tissue hypoxia in human obesity, and we suggest that, like the downregulation of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis seen in obesity, the reduction in ATBF represents an adaptation to the increased fat mass. Most information on ATBF has been obtained from studying the subcutaneous abdominal fat depot, but more limited information on lower-body fat depots suggests some similarities, but also some differences: in particular, marked alpha-adrenergic tone, which can reduce the femoral ATBF response to adrenergic stimuli. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Vasan SK, Karpe F, Gu HF, Brismar K, Fall CH, Ingelsson E, Fall T. 2014. FTO genetic variants and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of 28,394 Indians Obesity, 22 (3), pp. 964-970. | Show Abstract | Read more

Objective To investigate the magnitude of association of FTO variants with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and related traits among Asian Indians. Methods Random-effect meta-analysis was performed on pooled data from eight studies (n = 28,394) for obesity and related traits and six studies (n = 24,987) for assessment of T2DM risk in Indians where FTO variants were reported. Results The minor A-allele of the FTO variant rs9939609 was associated with increased risk of obesity (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.21, p = 2.14 × 10-5), BMI (β = 0.30 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.21-0.38, p = 4.78 × 10-11) and other regional adiposity measurements [waist (β = 0.74 cm, 95% CI 0.49-0.99), HC (β = 0.52, 95% CI 0.26-0.78), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) (β = 0.002, 95% CI 0.001-0.004)] in Indians (p ≤ 0.001). An increased risk for T2DM (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.19, p = 0.002) was observed, which attenuated when adjusted for age, gender, and BMI (OR 1.09; 95%CI 1.02-1.16, p = 0.01). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of association between common FTO variant and obesity risk among Indians with comparable effect sizes as in Caucasians. The attenuation of FTO-T2DM risk on BMI adjustment reinforces that BMI does not fully account for the adiposity effects among Asian Indians who are more centrally obese. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

Mittal S, Franklin R, Sharples EJ, Friend PJ, Karpe F, Gough S. 2013. METABOLIC PROFILES AFTER PANCREAS TRANSPLANTATION TRANSPLANT INTERNATIONAL, 26 pp. 42-43.

Marinou K, Hodson L, Vasan SK, Fielding BA, Banerjee R, Brismar K, Koutsilieris M, Clark A, Neville MJ, Karpe F. 2014. Structural and functional properties of deep abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue explain its association with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in men. Diabetes Care, 37 (3), pp. 821-829. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Fat distribution is an important variable explaining metabolic heterogeneity of obesity. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is divided by the Scarpa's fascia into a deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (dSAT) and a superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (sSAT) layer. This study sought to characterize functional differences between the two SAT layers to explore their relative contribution to metabolic traits and cardiovascular risk (CVR) profile. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 371 Caucasians consecutively from a local random, population-based screening project in Oxford and 25 Asian Indians from the local community. The depth of the SAT layers was determined by ultrasound (US), and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies were performed under US guidance in a subgroup of 43 Caucasians. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass was quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. RESULTS: Male adiposity in both ethnic groups was characterized by a disproportionate expansion of dSAT, which was strongly correlated with VAT mass. dSAT depth was a strong predictor of global insulin resistance (IR; homeostatic model assessment of IR), liver-specific IR (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1), and Framingham risk score independently of other measures of adiposity in men. Moreover, dSAT had higher expression of proinflammatory, lipogenic, and lipolytic genes and contained higher proportions of saturated fatty acids. There was increased proportion of small adipocytes in dSAT. CONCLUSIONS: SAT is heterogeneous; dSAT expands disproportionally more than sSAT with increasing obesity in Caucasian males (confirmed also in Asian Indians). Its expansion is related to increased CVR independent of other adiposity measures, and it has biological properties suggestive of higher metabolic activity contributing to global IR.

Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2014. Regulation of human subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow. Int J Obes (Lond), 38 (8), pp. 1019-1026. | Show Abstract | Read more

Subcutaneous adipose tissue represents about 85% of all body fat. Its major metabolic role is the regulated storage and mobilization of lipid energy. It stores lipid in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), which is mobilized, as required for use by other tissues, in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Neither TG nor NEFA are soluble to any extent in water, and their transport to and out of the tissue requires specialized transport mechanisms and adequate blood flow. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) is therefore tightly linked to the tissue's metabolic functioning. ATBF is relatively high (in the fasting state, similar to that of resting skeletal muscle, when expressed per 100 g tissue) and changes markedly in different physiological states. Those most studied are after ingestion of a meal, when there is normally a marked rise in ATBF, and exercise, when ATBF also increases. Pharmacological studies have helped to define the physiological regulation of ATBF. Adrenergic influences predominate in most situations, but nevertheless the regulation of ATBF is complex and depends on the interplay of many different systems. ATBF is downregulated in obesity (when expressed per 100 g tissue), and its responsiveness to meal intake is reduced. However, there is little evidence that this leads to adipose tissue hypoxia in human obesity, and we suggest that, like the downregulation of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis seen in obesity, the reduction in ATBF represents an adaptation to the increased fat mass. Most information on ATBF has been obtained from studying the subcutaneous abdominal fat depot, but more limited information on lower-body fat depots suggests some similarities, but also some differences: in particular, marked alpha-adrenergic tone, which can reduce the femoral ATBF response to adrenergic stimuli.

Mittal S, Franklin R, Craven-Todd R, Sharples E, Karpe F, Friend P, Gough S. 2013. Long-Standing Functional Outcomes After Whole Organ Pancreas Transplantation Show Considerable Heterogeneity in Glucose Tolerance and Differ to Conventionally Accepted Normal Measures TRANSPLANTATION, 96 (6), pp. S34-S34.

Manuel A, Stradling J, McIntrye A, Karpe F, Hart N, Rich S, Christopher K, Sarika S. 2013. Relationship between upper airway structures and pathogenesis in obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, 42

Vasan SK, Karpe F, Gu HF, Brismar K, Fall CH, Ingelsson E, Fall T. 2014. FTO genetic variants and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of 28,394 Indians. Obesity (Silver Spring), 22 (3), pp. 964-970. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnitude of association of FTO variants with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and related traits among Asian Indians. METHODS: Random-effect meta-analysis was performed on pooled data from eight studies (n = 28,394) for obesity and related traits and six studies (n = 24,987) for assessment of T2DM risk in Indians where FTO variants were reported. RESULTS: The minor A-allele of the FTO variant rs9939609 was associated with increased risk of obesity (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.21, p = 2.14 × 10(-) (5) ), BMI (β = 0.30 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.21-0.38, p = 4.78 × 10(-) (11) ) and other regional adiposity measurements [waist (β = 0.74 cm, 95% CI 0.49-0.99), HC (β = 0.52, 95% CI 0.26-0.78), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) (β = 0.002, 95% CI 0.001-0.004)] in Indians (p ≤ 0.001). An increased risk for T2DM (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.19, p = 0.002) was observed, which attenuated when adjusted for age, gender, and BMI (OR 1.09; 95%CI 1.02-1.16, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence of association between common FTO variant and obesity risk among Indians with comparable effect sizes as in Caucasians. The attenuation of FTO-T2DM risk on BMI adjustment reinforces that BMI does not fully account for the adiposity effects among Asian Indians who are more centrally obese.

Rivas MA, Pirinen M, Neville MJ, Gaulton KJ, Moutsianas L, GoT2D Consortium, Lindgren CM, Karpe F, McCarthy MI, Donnelly P. 2013. Assessing association between protein truncating variants and quantitative traits. Bioinformatics, 29 (19), pp. 2419-2426. | Show Abstract | Read more

MOTIVATION: In sequencing studies of common diseases and quantitative traits, power to test rare and low frequency variants individually is weak. To improve power, a common approach is to combine statistical evidence from several genetic variants in a region. Major challenges are how to do the combining and which statistical framework to use. General approaches for testing association between rare variants and quantitative traits include aggregating genotypes and trait values, referred to as 'collapsing', or using a score-based variance component test. However, little attention has been paid to alternative models tailored for protein truncating variants. Recent studies have highlighted the important role that protein truncating variants, commonly referred to as 'loss of function' variants, may have on disease susceptibility and quantitative levels of biomarkers. We propose a Bayesian modelling framework for the analysis of protein truncating variants and quantitative traits. RESULTS: Our simulation results show that our models have an advantage over the commonly used methods. We apply our models to sequence and exome-array data and discover strong evidence of association between low plasma triglyceride levels and protein truncating variants at APOC3 (Apolipoprotein C3). AVAILABILITY: Software is available from http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/~rivas/mamba

Cited:

24

Scopus

Futema M, Whittall RA, Kiley A, Steel LK, Cooper JA, Badmus E, Leigh SE, Karpe F, Neil HAW, Humphries SE. 2013. Analysis of the frequency and spectrum of mutations recognised to cause familial hypercholesterolaemia in routine clinical practice in a UK specialist hospital lipid clinic Atherosclerosis, 229 (1), pp. 161-168. | Show Abstract | Read more

Aim: To determine the frequency and spectrum of mutations causing Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in patients attending a single UK specialist hospital lipid clinic in Oxford and to identify characteristics contributing to a high mutation detection rate. Methods: 289 patients (272 probands) were screened sequentially over a 2-year period for mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 using standard molecular genetic techniques. The Simon Broome (SB) clinical diagnostic criteria were used to classify patients and a separate cohort of 409 FH patients was used for replication. Results: An FH-causing mutation was found in 101 unrelated patients (LDLR=54 different mutations, APOB p.(Arg3527Gln)=10, PCSK9 p.(Asp374Tyr)=0). In the 60 SB Definite FH patients the mutation detection rate was 73% while in the 142 with Possible FH the rate was significantly lower (27%, p<0.0001), but similar (14%, p=0.06) to the 70 in whom there was insufficient data to make a clinical diagnosis. The mutation detection rate varied significantly (p=9.83×10-5) by untreated total cholesterol (TC) levels (25% in those <8.1mmol/l and 74% in those >10.0mmol/l), and by triglyceride levels (20% in those >2.16mmol/l and 60% in those <1.0mmol/l (p=0.0005)), with both effects confirmed in the replication sample (p for trend=0.0001 and p=1.8×10-6 respectively). There was no difference in the specificity or sensitivity of the SB criteria versus the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score in identifying mutation carriers (AROC respectively 0.73 and 0.72, p=0.68). Conclusions: In this genetically heterogeneous cohort of FH patients the mutation detection rate was significantly dependent on pre-treatment TC and triglyceride levels. © 2013 The Authors.

Vasan SK, Fall T, Job V, Gu HF, Ingelsson E, Brismar K, Karpe F, Thomas N. 2013. A common variant in the FTO locus is associated with waist-hip ratio in Indian adolescents Pediatric Obesity, 8 (3), | Show Abstract | Read more

Background: Common variants in the FTO locus, and near MC4R locus, have been shown to have a robust association with obesity in children and adults among various ethnic groups. Associations with obesity traits among Indian adolescents have not been determined. Objective: To study the association of rs9939609 (FTO) and rs17782313 (MC4R) to obesity related anthropometric traits in Indian adolescents. Methods: Subjects for the current study were recruited from a cross-sectional cohort of 1,230 adolescents (age mean ± SD: 17.1 ± 1.9 years) from South India. Results: The variant at the FTO locus was found to be associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) but not with overall obesity in this population. No significant association was observed for obesity-traits and Mc4R variant rs17782313. Conclusion: The common variant of FTO (rs9939609) is associated with body fat distribution during early growth in Indian adolescents and may predispose to obesity and metabolic consequences in adulthood. © 2012 The Authors.

Randall JC, Winkler TW, Kutalik Z, Berndt SI, Jackson AU, Monda KL, Kilpeläinen TO, Esko T et al. 2013. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits. PLoS Genet, 9 (6), pp. e1003500. | Show Abstract | Read more

Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

Magné J, Aminoff A, Perman Sundelin J, Mannila MN, Gustafsson P, Hultenby K, Wernerson A, Bauer G et al. 2013. The minor allele of the missense polymorphism Ser251Pro in perilipin 2 (PLIN2) disrupts an α-helix, affects lipolysis, and is associated with reduced plasma triglyceride concentration in humans. FASEB J, 27 (8), pp. 3090-3099. | Show Abstract | Read more

Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is the most abundant lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein in nonadipose tissue, and its expression correlates with intracellular lipid accumulation. Here we identified a missense polymorphism, Ser251Pro, that has major effect on protein structure and function, along with an influence on human plasma triglyceride concentration. The evolutionarily conserved Ser251Pro polymorphism was identified with the ClustalW program. Structure modeling using 3D-JigSaw and the Chimera package revealed that the Pro251 allele disrupts a predicted α-helix in PLIN2. Analyses of macrophages from individuals carrying Ser251Pro variants and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably transfected with either of the alleles demonstrated that the Pro251 variant causes increased lipid accumulation and decreased lipolysis. Analysis of LD size distribution in stably transfected cells showed that the minor Pro251 allele resulted in an increased number of small LDs per cell and increased perilipin 3 protein expression levels as compared with cells carrying the major Ser251 allele. Genotyping of 2113 individuals indicated that the Pro251 variant is associated with decreased plasma triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein concentrations. Altogether, these data provide the first evidence of a polymorphism in PLIN2 that affects PLIN2 function and may influence the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

Futema M, Whittall RA, Kiley A, Steel LK, Cooper JA, Badmus E, Leigh SE, Karpe F, Neil HA, Simon Broome Register Group, Humphries SE. 2013. Analysis of the frequency and spectrum of mutations recognised to cause familial hypercholesterolaemia in routine clinical practice in a UK specialist hospital lipid clinic. Atherosclerosis, 229 (1), pp. 161-168. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIM: To determine the frequency and spectrum of mutations causing Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in patients attending a single UK specialist hospital lipid clinic in Oxford and to identify characteristics contributing to a high mutation detection rate. METHODS: 289 patients (272 probands) were screened sequentially over a 2-year period for mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 using standard molecular genetic techniques. The Simon Broome (SB) clinical diagnostic criteria were used to classify patients and a separate cohort of 409 FH patients was used for replication. RESULTS: An FH-causing mutation was found in 101 unrelated patients (LDLR = 54 different mutations, APOB p.(Arg3527Gln) = 10, PCSK9 p.(Asp374Tyr) = 0). In the 60 SB Definite FH patients the mutation detection rate was 73% while in the 142 with Possible FH the rate was significantly lower (27%, p < 0.0001), but similar (14%, p = 0.06) to the 70 in whom there was insufficient data to make a clinical diagnosis. The mutation detection rate varied significantly (p = 9.83 × 10(-5)) by untreated total cholesterol (TC) levels (25% in those <8.1 mmol/l and 74% in those >10.0 mmol/l), and by triglyceride levels (20% in those >2.16 mmol/l and 60% in those <1.0 mmol/l (p = 0.0005)), with both effects confirmed in the replication sample (p for trend = 0.0001 and p = 1.8 × 10(-6) respectively). There was no difference in the specificity or sensitivity of the SB criteria versus the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score in identifying mutation carriers (AROC respectively 0.73 and 0.72, p = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: In this genetically heterogeneous cohort of FH patients the mutation detection rate was significantly dependent on pre-treatment TC and triglyceride levels.

Berndt SI, Gustafsson S, Mägi R, Ganna A, Wheeler E, Feitosa MF, Justice AE, Monda KL et al. 2013. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture. Nat Genet, 45 (5), pp. 501-512. | Show Abstract | Read more

Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.

Cited:

129

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Talmud PJ, Shah S, Whittall R, Futema M, Howard P, Cooper JA, Harrison SC, Li K et al. 2013. Use of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol gene score to distinguish patients with polygenic and monogenic familial hypercholesterolaemia: A case-control study The Lancet, 381 (9874), pp. 1293-1301. | Show Abstract | Read more

Background Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in three known genes. DNA-based cascade testing is recommended by UK guidelines to identify affected relatives; however, about 60% of patients are mutation-negative. We assessed the hypothesis that familial hypercholesterolaemia can also be caused by an accumulation of common small-effect LDL-C-raising alleles. Methods In November, 2011, we assembled a sample of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia from three UKbased sources and compared them with a healthy control sample from the UK Whitehall II (WHII) study. We also studied patients from a Belgian lipid clinic (Hopital de Jolimont, Haine St-Paul, Belgium) for validation analyses. We genotyped participants for 12 common LDL-C-raising alleles identified by the Global Lipid Genetics Consortium and constructed a weighted LDL-C-raising gene score. We compared the gene score distribution among patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia with no confirmed mutation, those with an identified mutation, and controls from WHII. Findings We recruited 321 mutation-negative UK patients (451 Belgian), 319 mutation-positive UK patients (273 Belgian), and 3020 controls from WHII. The mean weighted LDL-C gene score of the WHII participants (0.90 [SD 0.23]) was strongly associated with LDL-C concentration (p=1.4 × 10-77; R2=0.11). Mutation-negative UK patients had a significantly higher mean weighted LDL-C score (1.0 [SD 0.21]) than did WHII controls (p=4.5 × 10-16), as did the mutation-negative Belgian patients (0.99 [0.19]; p=5.2 × 10 -20). The score was also higher in UK (0.95 [0.20]; p=1.6 × 10-5) and Belgian (0.92 [0.20]; p=0.04) mutation-positive patients than in WHII controls. 167 (52%) of 321 mutation-negative UK patients had a score within the top three deciles of the WHII weighted LDL-C gene score distribution, and only 35 (11%) fell within the lowest three deciles. Interpretation In a substantial proportion of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia without a known mutation, their raised LDL-C concentrations might have a polygenic cause, which could compromise the efficiency of cascade testing. In patients with a detected mutation, a substantial polygenic contribution might add to the variable penetrance of the disease.

Lackey DE, Lynch CJ, Olson KC, Mostaedi R, Ali M, Smith WH, Karpe F, Humphreys S et al. 2013. Regulation of adipose branched-chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 304 (11), pp. E1175-E1187. | Show Abstract | Read more

Elevated blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which might result from a reduced cellular utilization and/or incomplete BCAA oxidation. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a potential player in whole body BCAA metabolism. We tested if expression of the mitochondrial BCAA oxidation checkpoint, branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, is reduced in obese WAT and regulated by metabolic signals. WAT BCKD protein (E1α subunit) was significantly reduced by 35-50% in various obesity models (fa/fa rats, db/db mice, diet-induced obese mice), and BCKD component transcripts significantly lower in subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes from obese vs. lean Pima Indians. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes or mice with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists increased WAT BCAA catabolism enzyme mRNAs, whereas the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose had the opposite effect. The results support the hypothesis that suboptimal insulin action and/or perturbed metabolic signals in WAT, as would be seen with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, could impair WAT BCAA utilization. However, cross-tissue flux studies comparing lean vs. insulin-sensitive or insulin-resistant obese subjects revealed an unexpected negligible uptake of BCAA from human abdominal SC WAT. This suggests that SC WAT may not be an important contributor to blood BCAA phenotypes associated with insulin resistance in the overnight-fasted state. mRNA abundances for BCAA catabolic enzymes were markedly reduced in omental (but not SC) WAT of obese persons with metabolic syndrome compared with weight-matched healthy obese subjects, raising the possibility that visceral WAT contributes to the BCAA metabolic phenotype of metabolically compromised individuals.

Hilton C, Karpe F. 2013. Circulating microRNAs: what is their relevance? Clin Chem, 59 (5), pp. 729-731. | Read more

Karpe F. 2013. Insulin resistance by adiponectin deficiency: is the action in skeletal muscle? Diabetes, 62 (3), pp. 701-702. | Read more

Vasan SK, Fall T, Job V, Gu HF, Ingelsson E, Brismar K, Karpe F, Thomas N. 2013. A common variant in the FTO locus is associated with waist-hip ratio in Indian adolescents. Pediatr Obes, 8 (3), pp. e45-e49. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Common variants in the FTO locus, and near MC4R locus, have been shown to have a robust association with obesity in children and adults among various ethnic groups. Associations with obesity traits among Indian adolescents have not been determined. OBJECTIVE: To study the association of rs9939609 (FTO) and rs17782313 (MC4R) to obesity related anthropometric traits in Indian adolescents. METHODS: Subjects for the current study were recruited from a cross-sectional cohort of 1,230 adolescents (age mean ± SD: 17.1 ± 1.9 years) from South India. RESULTS: The variant at the FTO locus was found to be associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) but not with overall obesity in this population. No significant association was observed for obesity-traits and Mc4R variant rs17782313. CONCLUSION: The common variant of FTO (rs9939609) is associated with body fat distribution during early growth in Indian adolescents and may predispose to obesity and metabolic consequences in adulthood.

Talmud PJ, Shah S, Whittall R, Futema M, Howard P, Cooper JA, Harrison SC, Li K et al. 2013. Use of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol gene score to distinguish patients with polygenic and monogenic familial hypercholesterolaemia: a case-control study. Lancet, 381 (9874), pp. 1293-1301. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in three known genes. DNA-based cascade testing is recommended by UK guidelines to identify affected relatives; however, about 60% of patients are mutation-negative. We assessed the hypothesis that familial hypercholesterolaemia can also be caused by an accumulation of common small-effect LDL-C-raising alleles. METHODS: In November, 2011, we assembled a sample of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia from three UK-based sources and compared them with a healthy control sample from the UK Whitehall II (WHII) study. We also studied patients from a Belgian lipid clinic (Hôpital de Jolimont, Haine St-Paul, Belgium) for validation analyses. We genotyped participants for 12 common LDL-C-raising alleles identified by the Global Lipid Genetics Consortium and constructed a weighted LDL-C-raising gene score. We compared the gene score distribution among patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia with no confirmed mutation, those with an identified mutation, and controls from WHII. FINDINGS: We recruited 321 mutation-negative UK patients (451 Belgian), 319 mutation-positive UK patients (273 Belgian), and 3020 controls from WHII. The mean weighted LDL-C gene score of the WHII participants (0.90 [SD 0.23]) was strongly associated with LDL-C concentration (p=1.4 x 10(-77); R(2)=0.11). Mutation-negative UK patients had a significantly higher mean weighted LDL-C score (1.0 [SD 0.21]) than did WHII controls (p=4.5 x 10(-16)), as did the mutation-negative Belgian patients (0.99 [0.19]; p=5.2 x 10(-20)). The score was also higher in UK (0.95 [0.20]; p=1.6 x 10(-5)) and Belgian (0.92 [0.20]; p=0.04) mutation-positive patients than in WHII controls. 167 (52%) of 321 mutation-negative UK patients had a score within the top three deciles of the WHII weighted LDL-C gene score distribution, and only 35 (11%) fell within the lowest three deciles. INTERPRETATION: In a substantial proportion of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia without a known mutation, their raised LDL-C concentrations might have a polygenic cause, which could compromise the efficiency of cascade testing. In patients with a detected mutation, a substantial polygenic contribution might add to the variable penetrance of the disease. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Schering-Plough, National Institute for Health Research, Medical Research Council, Health and Safety Executive, Department of Health, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institute on Aging, Agency for Health Care Policy Research, John D and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation Research Networks on Successful Midlife Development and Socio-economic Status and Health, Unilever, and Departments of Health and Trade and Industry.

Hodson L, Karpe F. 2013. Is there something special about palmitoleate? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 16 (2), pp. 225-231. | Show Abstract | Read more

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The fatty acid, palmitoleate (16:1 n - 7), has received a lot of attention in recent years for being 'lipokine' and for the first time, we review the evidence to determine if there is something special about palmitoleate in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite dietary intakes being low (<4% of total energy) palmitoleate is the second most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid in most, but not all, blood lipid pools and notably more abundant in adipose tissue. Thus, compared with other fatty acids, the palmitoleate content of lipid pools must be influenced by endogenous synthesis, which appears to be tissue and depot specific. We present a summary of dietary intervention studies of food components enriched in palmitoleate but this gives inconclusive results in regards to an impact on human metabolic regulation. SUMMARY: To date, there is no strong evidence from human studies suggesting that palmitoleate has 'lipokine' effects. However, unlike other fatty acids, there is a clear tendency towards compartmentalization and tissue-specific formation of palmitoleate, which is intriguing and requires further investigation.

Cited:

41

Scopus

Hilton C, Neville MJ, Karpe F. 2013. MicroRNAs in adipose tissue: Their role in adipogenesis and obesity International Journal of Obesity, 37 (3), pp. 325-332. | Show Abstract | Read more

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and that have been shown to have important roles in numerous disease processes. There is growing evidence for an important role of miRNAs in regulating the pathways in adipose tissue that control a range of processes including adipogenesis, insulin resistance and inflammation. Several high-throughput studies have identified differentially expressed miRNAs in adipose tissue pathology and during adipogenesis and a number of these have now been characterised functionally in terms of their actions and targets. This review will summarise the current literature on miRNAs in adipose tissue, as well as discussing the methodologies used in this area of research and the potential application of miRNAs as biomarkers and as therapeutic targets.

Drong AW, Nicholson G, Hedman AK, Meduri E, Grundberg E, Small KS, Shin SY, Bell JT et al. 2013. The presence of methylation quantitative trait loci indicates a direct genetic influence on the level of DNA methylation in adipose tissue. PLoS One, 8 (2), pp. e55923. | Show Abstract | Read more

Genetic variants that associate with DNA methylation at CpG sites (methylation quantitative trait loci, meQTLs) offer a potential biological mechanism of action for disease associated SNPs. We investigated whether meQTLs exist in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and if CpG methylation associates with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) phenotypes. We profiled 27,718 genomic regions in abdominal SAT samples of 38 unrelated individuals using differential methylation hybridization (DMH) together with genotypes at 5,227,243 SNPs and expression of 17,209 mRNA transcripts. Validation and replication of significant meQTLs was pursued in an independent cohort of 181 female twins. We find that, at 5% false discovery rate, methylation levels of 149 DMH regions associate with at least one SNP in a ±500 kilobase cis-region in our primary study. We sought to validate 19 of these in the replication study and find that five of these significantly associate with the corresponding meQTL SNPs from the primary study. We find that none of the 149 meQTL top SNPs is a significant expression quantitative trait locus in our expression data, but we observed association between expression levels of two mRNA transcripts and cis-methylation status. Our results indicate that DNA CpG methylation in abdominal SAT is partly under genetic control. This study provides a starting point for future investigations of DNA methylation in adipose tissue.

Hodson L, Karpe F. 2013. Is there something special about palmitoleate? Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 16 (2), pp. 225-231. | Show Abstract | Read more

Purpose of Review: The fatty acid, palmitoleate (16:1 n-7), has received a lot of attention in recent years for being 'lipokine' and for the first time, we review the evidence to determine if there is something special about palmitoleate in humans. Recent Findings: Despite dietary intakes being low (<4% of total energy) palmitoleate is the second most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid in most, but not all, blood lipid pools and notably more abundant in adipose tissue. Thus, compared with other fatty acids, the palmitoleate content of lipid pools must be influenced by endogenous synthesis, which appears to be tissue and depot specific. We present a summary of dietary intervention studies of food components enriched in palmitoleate but this gives inconclusive results in regards to an impact on human metabolic regulation. Summary: To date, there is no strong evidence from human studies suggesting that palmitoleate has 'lipokine' effects. However, unlike other fatty acids, there is a clear tendency towards compartmentalization and tissue-specific formation of palmitoleate, which is intriguing and requires further investigation. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Hodson L, Humphreys SM, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2013. Metabolic signatures of human adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity. Diabetes, 62 (5), pp. 1417-1425. | Show Abstract | Read more

Adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia has been proposed as the cause of obesity-related AT dysfunction, moving the tissue toward a proinflammatory phenotype. In humans, AT oxygenation has been assessed by expression of hypoxia-sensitive genes or direct assessment of O₂ tension; the obvious read out of hypoxia, effects on intermediary metabolism, has not been investigated. We used tissue-specific venous catheterization of subcutaneous abdominal AT in humans to investigate oxygen-related metabolic processes, searching for metabolic signatures relating to hypoxia in obesity. O₂ delivery to AT was reduced in obesity (P < 0.05). However, O₂ consumption was low (<30% of resting forearm skeletal muscle [SM], P < 0.001); this was not related to obesity. AT primarily oxidized glucose, as demonstrated by a respiratory quotient close to 1.0 (higher than SM, P < 0.05). AT was a net producer of lactate, but there was an inverse relationship in venous outflow between lactate-to-pyruvate ratio (a marker of cytosolic redox state) and BMI, suggesting that AT is glycolytic but obese AT is not hypoxic. Although delivery of O₂ to the obese AT is reduced, O₂ consumption is low, and metabolic signatures of human AT do not support the notion of a hypoxic state in obesity.

Gloyn AL, Pal A, Karpe F. 2012. PTEN Haploinsufficiency, Obesity, and Insulin Sensitivity REPLY NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 367 (25), pp. 2451-2451.

Mughal SA, Park R, Nowak N, Gloyn AL, Karpe F, Matile H, Malecki MT, McCarthy MI, Stoffel M, Owen KR. 2013. Apolipoprotein M can discriminate HNF1A-MODY from Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med, 30 (2), pp. 246-250. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS: Missed diagnosis of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) has led to an interest in biomarkers that enable efficient prioritization of patients for definitive molecular testing. Apolipoprotein M (apoM) was suggested as a biomarker for hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A)-MODY because of its reduced expression in Hnf1a(-/-) mice. However, subsequent human studies examining apoM as a biomarker have yielded conflicting results. We aimed to evaluate apoM as a biomarker for HNF1A-MODY using a highly specific and sensitive ELISA. METHODS: ApoM concentration was measured in subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 69), Type 1 diabetes (n = 50), Type 2 diabetes (n = 120) and healthy control subjects (n = 100). The discriminative accuracy of apoM and of the apoM/HDL ratio for diabetes aetiology was evaluated. RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation) serum apoM concentration (μmol/l) was significantly lower for subjects with HNF1A-MODY [0.86 (0.29)], than for those with Type 1 diabetes [1.37 (0.26), P = 3.1 × 10(-18) ) and control subjects [1.34 (0.22), P = 7.2 × 10(-19) ). There was no significant difference in apoM concentration between subjects with HNF1A-MODY and Type 2 diabetes [0.89 (0.28), P = 0.13]. The C-statistic measure of discriminative accuracy for apoM was 0.91 for HNF1A-MODY vs. Type 1 diabetes, indicating high discriminative accuracy. The apoM/HDL ratio was significantly lower in HNF1A-MODY than other study groups. However, this ratio did not perform well in discriminating HNF1A-MODY from either Type 1 diabetes (C-statistic = 0.79) or Type 2 diabetes (C-statistic = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: We confirm an earlier report that serum apoM levels are lower in HNF1A-MODY than in controls. Serum apoM provides good discrimination between HNF1A-MODY and Type 1 diabetes and warrants further investigation for clinical utility in diabetes diagnostics.

Chamas L, Neville M, Karpe F. 2012. Novel metabolic associations with polymorphisms in the nicotinic acid receptor DIABETOLOGIA, 55 pp. S260-S260.

Pal A, Barber TM, Van de Bunt M, Rudge SA, Zhang Q, Lachlan KL, Cooper NS, Linden H et al. 2012. PTEN mutations as a cause of constitutive insulin sensitivity and obesity. N Engl J Med, 367 (11), pp. 1002-1011. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic evidence links type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer. The tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) has roles in both cellular growth and metabolic signaling. Germline PTEN mutations cause a cancer-predisposition syndrome, providing an opportunity to study the effect of PTEN haploinsufficiency in humans. METHODS: We measured insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in 15 PTEN mutation carriers and 15 matched controls. Insulin signaling was measured in muscle and adipose-tissue biopsy specimens from 5 mutation carriers and 5 well-matched controls. We also assessed the effect of PTEN haploinsufficiency on obesity by comparing anthropometric indexes between the 15 patients and 2097 controls from a population-based study of healthy adults. Body composition was evaluated by means of dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry and skinfold thickness. RESULTS: Measures of insulin resistance were lower in the patients with a PTEN mutation than in controls (e.g., mean fasting plasma insulin level, 29 pmol per liter [range, 9 to 99] vs. 74 pmol per liter [range, 22 to 185]; P=0.001). This finding was confirmed with the use of hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping, showing a glucose infusion rate among carriers 2 times that among controls (P=0.009). The patients' insulin sensitivity could be explained by the presence of enhanced insulin signaling through the PI3K-AKT pathway, as evidenced by increased AKT phosphorylation. The PTEN mutation carriers were obese as compared with population-based controls (mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 32 [range, 23 to 42] vs. 26 [range, 15 to 48]; P<0.001). This increased body mass in the patients was due to augmented adiposity without corresponding changes in fat distribution. CONCLUSIONS: PTEN haploinsufficiency is a monogenic cause of profound constitutive insulin sensitization that is apparently obesogenic. We demonstrate an apparently divergent effect of PTEN mutations: increased risks of obesity and cancer but a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes owing to enhanced insulin sensitivity. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others.).

Manolopoulos KN, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2012. Marked resistance of femoral adipose tissue blood flow and lipolysis to adrenaline in vivo. Diabetologia, 55 (11), pp. 3029-3037. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fatty acid entrapment in femoral adipose tissue has been proposed to prevent ectopic fat deposition and visceral fat accumulation, resulting in protection from insulin resistance. Our objective was to test the hypothesis of femoral, compared with abdominal, adipose tissue resistance to adrenergic stimulation in vivo as a possible mechanism. METHODS: Regional fatty acid trafficking, along with the measurement of adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) with (133)Xe washout, was studied with the arteriovenous difference technique and stable isotope tracers in healthy volunteers. Adrenergic agonists (isoprenaline, adrenaline [epinephrine]) were infused either locally by microinfusion or systemically. Local microinfusion of adrenoceptor antagonists (propranolol, phentolamine) was used to characterise specific adrenoceptor subtype effects in vivo. RESULTS: Femoral adipose tissue NEFA release and ATBF were lower during adrenaline stimulation than in abdominal tissue (p < 0.001). Mechanistically, femoral adipose tissue displayed a dominant α-adrenergic response during adrenaline stimulation. The α-adrenoceptor blocker, phentolamine, resulted in the 'disinhibition' of the femoral ATBF response to adrenaline (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Fatty acids, once stored in femoral adipose tissue, are not readily released upon adrenergic stimulation. Femoral adipose tissue resistance to adrenaline may contribute to the prevention of ectopic fatty acid deposition.

Karpe F. 2012. Chylomicron production as a feature of atherogenic lipoproteins. Curr Opin Lipidol, 23 (4), pp. 398-399. | Read more

Nielsen S, Karpe F. 2012. Determinants of VLDL-triglycerides production. Curr Opin Lipidol, 23 (4), pp. 321-326. | Show Abstract | Read more

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are major substrates for hepatic VLDL-triglycerides (VLDL-TG) production. In addition, it is a common belief that VLDL-TG production is a substrate driven process primarily determined by systemic FFA delivery. This review summarizes recent research of our understanding of the regulation of VLDL-TG production. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that increasing FFA flux is not inevitably associated with increased VLDL-TG production. Exercise induced increase in FFA flux resulting in unchanged VLDL-TG production in lean patients as well as in obese patients with increased hepatic fat despite exercise reduced hepatic fat content. With respect to the other inseparable conditions of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, recent studies demonstrate that increased hepatic VLDL-TG production precedes the insulin resistance-associated impairment of the regulation of hepatic glucose production, whereas isolated chronic hyperinsulinemia (insulinoma) was not associated with increased VLDL-TG production. Insulin has been shown to have acute potent temporary suppressing effect on VLDL-TG production and new data demonstrates that increased glucagon reduces VLDL-TG production. Finally, recent studies indicate that sex hormones, oestrogen and testosterone, have no or very modest impact on VLDL-TG production. SUMMARY: Regulation of hepatic VLDL-TG production involves interplay between systemic FFA delivery, hormonal, and nutritional factors that act in concert with hepatic fatty acid handling to regulate short-term and long-term VLDL-TG production. The results of recent studies underscore that our current understanding of these relationships is complex and needs further research.

Gill PJ, Harnden A, Karpe F. 2012. EASILY MISSED? Familial hypercholesterolaemia BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 344 (may11 1), pp. e3228-e3228. | Read more

Hilton C, Neville MJ, Karpe F. 2013. MicroRNAs in adipose tissue: their role in adipogenesis and obesity. Int J Obes (Lond), 37 (3), pp. 325-332. | Show Abstract | Read more

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and that have been shown to have important roles in numerous disease processes. There is growing evidence for an important role of miRNAs in regulating the pathways in adipose tissue that control a range of processes including adipogenesis, insulin resistance and inflammation. Several high-throughput studies have identified differentially expressed miRNAs in adipose tissue pathology and during adipogenesis and a number of these have now been characterised functionally in terms of their actions and targets. This review will summarise the current literature on miRNAs in adipose tissue, as well as discussing the methodologies used in this area of research and the potential application of miRNAs as biomarkers and as therapeutic targets.

Hughes KA, Manolopoulos KN, Iqbal J, Cruden NL, Stimson RH, Reynolds RM, Newby DE, Andrew R, Karpe F, Walker BR. 2012. Recycling between cortisol and cortisone in human splanchnic, subcutaneous adipose, and skeletal muscle tissues in vivo. Diabetes, 61 (6), pp. 1357-1364. | Show Abstract | Read more

11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) is a therapeutic target in metabolic syndrome because it catalyses reductase regeneration of cortisol from cortisone in adipose and liver. 11βHSD1 can also catalyze the reverse dehydrogenase reaction in vitro (e.g., if cofactor is limited). We used stable isotope tracers to test the hypothesis that both 11βHSD1-reductase and -dehydrogenase activities occur in human metabolic tissues in vivo. 1,2-[(2)H](2)-Cortisone (d2-cortisone) was validated as a tracer for 11β-dehydrogenase activity and its inhibition by licorice. d2-Cortisone and 9,11,12,12-[(2)H](4)-cortisol (d4-cortisol) (to measure 11β-reductase activity) were coinfused and venous samples obtained from skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose (n = 6), and liver (n = 4). Steroids were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and arteriovenous differences adjusted for blood flow. Data are means ± SEM. 11β-Reductase and -dehydrogenase activities were detected in muscle (cortisol release 19.7 ± 4.1 pmol/100 mL/min, d3-cortisol 5.9 ± 1.8 pmol/100 mL/min, and cortisone 15.2 ± 5.8 pmol/100 mL/min) and splanchnic (cortisol 64.0 ± 11.4 nmol/min, d3-cortisol 12.9 ± 2.1 nmol/min, and cortisone 19.5 ± 2.8 nmol/min) circulations. In adipose, dehydrogenase was more readily detected than reductase (cortisone release 38.7 ± 5.8 pmol/100 g/min). Active recycling between cortisol and cortisone in metabolic tissues in vivo may facilitate dynamic control of intracellular cortisol but makes consequences of dysregulation of 11βHSD1 transcription in obesity and diabetes unpredictable. Disappointing efficacy of 11βHSD1 inhibitors in phase II studies could be explained by lack of selectivity for 11β-reductase.

Pinnick KE, Neville MJ, Fielding BA, Frayn KN, Karpe F, Hodson L. 2012. Gluteofemoral adipose tissue plays a major role in production of the lipokine palmitoleate in humans. Diabetes, 61 (6), pp. 1399-1403. | Show Abstract | Read more

The expansion of lower-body adipose tissue (AT) is paradoxically associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk. We examined whether the beneficial metabolic properties of lower-body AT are related to the production and release of the insulin-sensitizing lipokine palmitoleate (16:1n-7). Using venoarterial difference sampling, we investigated the relative release of 16:1n-7 from lower-body (gluteofemoral) and upper-body (abdominal subcutaneous) AT depots. Paired gluteofemoral and abdominal subcutaneous AT samples were analyzed for triglyceride fatty acid composition and mRNA expression. Finally, the triglyceride fatty acid composition of isolated human preadipocytes was determined. Relative release of 16:1n-7 was markedly higher from gluteofemoral AT compared with abdominal subcutaneous AT. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the key enzyme involved in endogenous 16:1n-7 production, was more highly expressed in gluteofemoral AT and was associated with greater enrichment of 16:1n-7. Furthermore, isolated human preadipocytes from gluteofemoral AT displayed a higher content of SCD1-derived fatty acids. We demonstrate that human gluteofemoral AT plays a major role in determining systemic concentrations of the lipokine palmitoleate. Moreover, this appears to be an inherent feature of gluteofemoral AT. We propose that the beneficial metabolic properties of lower-body AT may be partly explained by the intrinsically greater production and release of palmitoleate.

Vasan SK, Fall T, Neville MJ, Antonisamy B, Fall CH, Geethanjali FS, Gu HF, Raghupathy P et al. 2012. Associations of variants in FTO and near MC4R with obesity traits in South Asian Indians. Obesity (Silver Spring), 20 (11), pp. 2268-2277. | Show Abstract | Read more

Recent genome-wide association studies show that loci in FTO and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associate with obesity-related traits. Outside Western populations the associations between these variants have not always been consistent and in Indians it has been suggested that FTO relates to diabetes without an obvious intermediary obesity phenotype. We investigated the association between genetic variants in FTO (rs9939609) and near MC4R (rs17782313) with obesity- and type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-related traits in a longitudinal birth cohort of 2,151 healthy individuals from the Vellore birth cohort in South India. The FTO locus displayed significant associations with several conventional obesity-related anthropometric traits. The per allele increase is about 1% for BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio. Consistent associations were observed for adipose tissue-specific measurements such as skinfold thickness reinforcing the association with obesity-related traits. Obesity associations for the MC4R locus were weak or nonsignificant but a signal for height (P < 0.001) was observed. The effect on obesity-related traits for FTO was seen in adulthood, but not at younger ages. The loci also showed nominal associations with increased blood glucose but these associations were lost on BMI adjustment. The effect of FTO on obesity-related traits was driven by an urban environmental influence. We conclude that rs9939609 variant in the FTO locus is associated with measures of adiposity and metabolic consequences in South Indians with an enhanced effect associated with urban living. The detection of these associations in Indians is challenging because conventional anthropometric obesity measures work poorly in the Indian "thin-fat" phenotype.

Min JL, Nicholson G, Halgrimsdottir I, Almstrup K, Petri A, Barrett A, Travers M, Rayner NW et al. 2012. Coexpression network analysis in abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue reveals regulatory genetic loci for metabolic syndrome and related phenotypes. PLoS Genet, 8 (2), pp. e1002505. | Show Abstract | Read more

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and has considerable public health impact, but its underlying genetic factors remain elusive. To identify gene networks involved in MetS, we conducted whole-genome expression and genotype profiling on abdominal (ABD) and gluteal (GLU) adipose tissue, and whole blood (WB), from 29 MetS cases and 44 controls. Co-expression network analysis for each tissue independently identified nine, six, and zero MetS-associated modules of coexpressed genes in ABD, GLU, and WB, respectively. Of 8,992 probesets expressed in ABD or GLU, 685 (7.6%) were expressed in ABD and 51 (0.6%) in GLU only. Differential eigengene network analysis of 8,256 shared probesets detected 22 shared modules with high preservation across adipose depots (D(ABD-GLU) = 0.89), seven of which were associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01). The strongest associated module, significantly enriched for immune response-related processes, contained 94/620 (15%) genes with inter-depot differences. In an independent cohort of 145/141 twins with ABD and WB longitudinal expression data, median variability in ABD due to familiality was greater for MetS-associated versus un-associated modules (ABD: 0.48 versus 0.18, P = 0.08; GLU: 0.54 versus 0.20, P = 7.8×10(-4)). Cis-eQTL analysis of probesets associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01) and/or inter-depot differences (FDR P<0.01) provided evidence for 32 eQTLs. Corresponding eSNPs were tested for association with MetS-related phenotypes in two GWAS of >100,000 individuals; rs10282458, affecting expression of RARRES2 (encoding chemerin), was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 6.0×10(-4)); and rs2395185, affecting inter-depot differences of HLA-DRB1 expression, was associated with high-density lipoprotein (P = 8.7×10(-4)) and BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (P = 2.4×10(-4)). Since many genes and their interactions influence complex traits such as MetS, integrated analysis of genotypes and coexpression networks across multiple tissues relevant to clinical traits is an efficient strategy to identify novel associations.

McHugh SM, Roman S, Davis B, Koch A, Pickett AM, Richardson JC, Miller SR, Wetten S et al. 2012. Effects of genetic variation in the P2RX7 gene on pharmacodynamics of a P2X(7) receptor antagonist: a prospective genotyping approach. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 74 (2), pp. 376-380. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS: To investigate the effects of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human P2X₇ receptor gene (P2RX7)--1068G>A (A348T) and 1513A>C (E496A)--on P2X₇ receptor function, using a specific receptor antagonist (GSK1370319A) and prospective genetic stratification. METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide- and ATP-stimulated interleukin-1β production was determined in the presence or absence of GSK1370319A in blood culture from 32 prospectively genotyped subjects. RESULTS: There was approximately 6.7-fold difference (P < 0.0001) in IC₅₀ for inhibition of ATP-stimulated interleukin-1β release by GSK1370319A between individuals with the homozygous gain--(1068A) and loss-of-function (1513C) genotypes (expressing the 348T, 496E and 348A, 496A alleles, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Leukocyte P2X₇ receptors had significantly altered pharmacodynamic responses to a specific antagonist (GSK1370319A), directly related to SNP genotype.

Gloyn AL, Pal A, Karpe F. 2012. PTEN Haploinsufficiency, Obesity, and Insulin Sensitivity New England Journal of Medicine, 367 (25), pp. 2450-2451. | Read more

Cited:

20

Scopus

Vasan SK, Fall T, Neville MJ, Antonisamy B, Fall CH, Geethanjali FS, Gu HF, Raghupathy P et al. 2012. Associations of variants in FTO and near MC4R with obesity traits in south Asian Indians Obesity, 20 (11), pp. 2268-2277. | Show Abstract | Read more

Recent genome-wide association studies show that loci in FTO and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associate with obesity-related traits. Outside Western populations the associations between these variants have not always been consistent and in Indians it has been suggested that FTO relates to diabetes without an obvious intermediary obesity phenotype. We investigated the association between genetic variants in FTO (rs9939609) and near MC4R (rs17782313) with obesity- and type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-related traits in a longitudinal birth cohort of 2,151 healthy individuals from the Vellore birth cohort in South India. The FTO locus displayed significant associations with several conventional obesity-related anthropometric traits. The per allele increase is about 1% for BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio. Consistent associations were observed for adipose tissue-specific measurements such as skinfold thickness reinforcing the association with obesity-related traits. Obesity associations for the MC4R locus were weak or nonsignificant but a signal for height (P < 0.001) was observed. The effect on obesity-related traits for FTO was seen in adulthood, but not at younger ages. The loci also showed nominal associations with increased blood glucose but these associations were lost on BMI adjustment. The effect of FTO on obesity-related traits was driven by an urban environmental influence. We conclude that rs9939609 variant in the FTO locus is associated with measures of adiposity and metabolic consequences in South Indians with an enhanced effect associated with urban living. The detection of these associations in Indians is challenging because conventional anthropometric obesity measures work poorly in the Indian thin-fat phenotype.

Manolopoulos KN, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2012. Marked resistance of femoral adipose tissue blood flow and lipolysis to adrenaline in vivo Diabetologia, 55 (11), pp. 3029-3037. | Show Abstract | Read more

Aims/hypothesis Fatty acid entrapment in femoral adipose tissue has been proposed to prevent ectopic fat deposition and visceral fat accumulation, resulting in protection from insulin resistance. Our objective was to test the hypothesis of femoral, compared with abdominal, adipose tissue resistance to adrenergic stimulation in vivo as a possible mechanism. Methods Regional fatty acid trafficking, along with the measurement of adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) with 133Xe washout, was studied with the arteriovenous difference technique and stable isotope tracers in healthy volunteers. Adrenergic agonists (isoprenaline, adrenaline [epinephrine]) were infused either locally by microinfusion or systemically. Localmicroinfusion of adrenoceptor antagonists (propranolol, phentolamine) was used to characterise specific adrenoceptor subtype effects in vivo. Results Femoral adipose tissue NEFA release and ATBF were lower during adrenaline stimulation than in abdominal tissue (p<0.001). Mechanistically, femoral adipose tissue displayed a dominant a-adrenergic response during adrenaline stimulation. The a-adrenoceptor blocker, phentolamine, resulted in the 'disinhibition' of the femoral ATBF response to adrenaline (p<0.001). Conclusions/interpretation Fatty acids, once stored in femoral adipose tissue, are not readily released upon adrenergic stimulation. Femoral adipose tissue resistance to adrenaline may contribute to the prevention of ectopic fatty acid deposition. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Cited:

23

Scopus

Nielsen S, Karpe F. 2012. Determinants of VLDL-triglycerides production Current Opinion in Lipidology, 23 (4), pp. 321-326. | Show Abstract | Read more

Purpose of Review: Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are major substrates for hepatic VLDL-triglycerides (VLDL-TG) production. In addition, it is a common belief that VLDL-TG production is a substrate driven process primarily determined by systemic FFA delivery. This review summarizes recent research of our understanding of the regulation of VLDL-TG production. Recent Findings: Recent studies have shown that increasing FFA flux is not inevitably associated with increased VLDL-TG production. Exercise induced increase in FFA flux resulting in unchanged VLDL-TG production in lean patients as well as in obese patients with increased hepatic fat despite exercise reduced hepatic fat content. With respect to the other inseparable conditions of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, recent studies demonstrate that increased hepatic VLDL-TG production precedes the insulin resistance-associated impairment of the regulation of hepatic glucose production, whereas isolated chronic hyperinsulinemia (insulinoma) was not associated with increased VLDL-TG production. Insulin has been shown to have acute potent temporary suppressing effect on VLDL-TG production and new data demonstrates that increased glucagon reduces VLDL-TG production. Finally, recent studies indicate that sex hormones, oestrogen and testosterone, have no or very modest impact on VLDL-TG production. Summary: Regulation of hepatic VLDL-TG production involves interplay between systemic FFA delivery, hormonal, and nutritional factors that act in concert with hepatic fatty acid handling to regulate short-term and long-term VLDL-TG production. The results of recent studies underscore that our current understanding of these relationships is complex and needs further research. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Andersson J, Karpe F, Sjöström LG, Riklund K, Söderberg S, Olsson T. 2012. Association of adipose tissue blood flow with fat depot sizes and adipokines in women International Journal of Obesity, 36 (6), pp. 783-789. | Show Abstract | Read more

Objective: To explore possible associations between adipose tissue (AT) blood flow (ATBF), AT depot sizes and adipocyte-derived hormones (adipokines) in women.Subjects:In all, 43 healthy women were divided into four groups: normal-weight (n11) and obese (n11) pre-menopausal women and normal-weight (n10) and obese (n11) post-menopausal women.Methods:Fasting levels of adipokines were obtained, and a single-slice computed tomography scan at the level of L4-L5 was used to estimate fat depot sizes. ATBF was assessed by xenon washout while in a fasting state and after oral glucose load. We also measured glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids. Results: Total, subcutaneous and visceral AT areas strongly correlated with ATBF (all P<0.001). Circulating leptin levels strongly and inversely correlated with ATBF (P<0.001), but this association did not remain after adjustment for body mass index. Adiponectin was not associated with blood flow.Conclusion:ATBF is closely linked to subcutaneous and visceral AT size. Further analyses are needed to determine possible mediators of this association, including mechanistic studies to assess a putative role for leptin as a significant modulator of blood flow. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Dastani Z, Hivert MF, Timpson N, Perry JR, Yuan X, Scott RA, Henneman P, Heid IM et al. 2012. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals. PLoS Genet, 8 (3), pp. e1002607. | Show Abstract | Read more

Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3×10(-3), n = 22,044), increased triglycerides (p = 2.6×10(-14), n = 93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8×10(-5), n = 77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4×10(-3), n = 15,234), increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5×10(-13), n = 96,748) and decreased BMI (p = 1.4×10(-4), n = 121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.

Gill PJ, Harnden A, Karpe F. 2012. Familial hypercholesterolaemia. BMJ, 344 (7860), pp. e3228. | Read more

Palmer ND, McDonough CW, Hicks PJ, Roh BH, Wing MR, An SS, Hester JM, Cooke JN et al. 2012. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans. PLoS One, 7 (1), pp. e29202. | Show Abstract | Read more

African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.

Thompson D, Karpe F, Lafontan M, Frayn K. 2012. Physical activity and exercise in the regulation of human adipose tissue physiology. Physiol Rev, 92 (1), pp. 157-191. | Show Abstract | Read more

Physical activity and exercise are key components of energy expenditure and therefore of energy balance. Changes in energy balance alter fat mass. It is therefore reasonable to ask: What are the links between physical activity and adipose tissue function? There are many complexities. Physical activity is a multifaceted behavior of which exercise is just one component. Physical activity influences adipose tissue both acutely and in the longer term. A single bout of exercise stimulates adipose tissue blood flow and fat mobilization, resulting in delivery of fatty acids to skeletal muscles at a rate well-matched to metabolic requirements, except perhaps in vigorous intensity exercise. The stimuli include adrenergic and other circulating factors. There is a period following an exercise bout when fatty acids are directed away from adipose tissue to other tissues such as skeletal muscle, reducing dietary fat storage in adipose. With chronic exercise (training), there are changes in adipose tissue physiology, particularly an enhanced fat mobilization during acute exercise. It is difficult, however, to distinguish chronic "structural" changes from those associated with the last exercise bout. In addition, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of training per se and negative energy balance. Epidemiological observations support the idea that physically active people have relatively low fat mass, and intervention studies tend to show that exercise training reduces fat mass. A much-discussed effect of exercise versus calorie restriction in preferentially reducing visceral fat is not borne out by meta-analyses. We conclude that, in addition to the regulation of fat mass, physical activity may contribute to metabolic health through beneficial dynamic changes within adipose tissue in response to each activity bout.

Antoniades C, Antonopoulos AS, Neville M, Demosthenous M, Marinou K, Tousoulis D, Toutouza M, Stefanadis C, Karpe F, Channon KM. 2011. Haplotype on GTP-Cyclohydrolase I Gene, Reveals a Novel Role of Tetrahydrobiopterin as a Defense Mechanism Against Inflammation-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Human Atherosclerosis CIRCULATION, 124 (21),

Watts GF, Karpe F. 2011. Republished review: Triglycerides and atherogenic dyslipidaemia: extending treatment beyond statins in the high-risk cardiovascular patient. Postgrad Med J, 87 (1033), pp. 776-782. | Show Abstract | Read more

Although statins significantly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), residual CVD risk remains high. This may partly be due to uncorrected atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The driving force behind atherogenic dyslipidaemia is hypertriglyceridaemia, which results from hepatic oversecretion and/or hypocatabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and is typical of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Persistent atherogenic dyslipidaemia in patients treated with a statin according to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol goals may be corrected with niacin, fibrates or n-3 fatty acids. Clinical trial evidence to inform best practice is limited, but new data support adding fenofibrate to a statin. A consistent feature of fibrate clinical trials is the specific benefit of these agents in dyslipidaemic patients and the improvement in diabetic retinopathy with fenofibrate. Ongoing clinical trials may provide good evidence for adding niacin to a statin. Low-dose n-3 fatty acids could be used routinely after a myocardial infarction, but the value of higher doses of n-3 fatty acids in reducing CVD risk remains to be demonstrated.

Antoniades C, Cunnington C, Antonopoulos A, Neville M, Margaritis M, Demosthenous M, Bendall J, Hale A et al. 2011. Induction of vascular GTP-cyclohydrolase I and endogenous tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis protect against inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction in human atherosclerosis. Circulation, 124 (17), pp. 1860-1870. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The endothelial nitric oxide synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is essential for maintenance of enzymatic function. We hypothesized that induction of BH4 synthesis might be an endothelial defense mechanism against inflammation in vascular disease states. METHODS AND RESULTS: In Study 1, 20 healthy individuals were randomized to receive Salmonella typhi vaccine (a model of acute inflammation) or placebo in a double-blind study. Vaccination increased circulating BH4 and interleukin 6 and induced endothelial dysfunction (as evaluated by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation) after 8 hours. In Study 2, a functional haplotype (X haplotype) in the GCH1 gene, encoding GTP-cyclohydrolase I, the rate-limiting enzyme in biopterin biosynthesis, was associated with endothelial dysfunction in the presence of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in 440 coronary artery disease patients. In Study 3, 10 patients with coronary artery disease homozygotes for the GCH1 X haplotype (XX) and 40 without the haplotype (OO) underwent S Typhi vaccination. XX patients were unable to increase plasma BH4 and had a greater reduction of flow-mediated dilation than OO patients. In Study 4, vessel segments from 19 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery were incubated with or without cytokines (interleukin-6/tumor necrosis factor-α/lipopolysaccharide) for 24 hours. Cytokine stimulation upregulated GCH1 expression, increased vascular BH4, and improved vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine, which was inhibited by the GTP-cyclohydrolase inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to increase vascular GCH1 expression and BH4 synthesis in response to inflammation preserves endothelial function in inflammatory states. These novel findings identify BH4 as a vascular defense mechanism against inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction.

Karpe F, Dickmann JR, Frayn KN. 2011. Fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance: time for a reevaluation. Diabetes, 60 (10), pp. 2441-2449. | Read more

Ardilouze JL, Sotorník R, Dennis LA, Fielding BA, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2012. Failure to increase postprandial blood flow in subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with tissue resistance to adrenergic stimulation. Diabetes Metab, 38 (1), pp. 27-33. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS: Adequate adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) is essential for its metabolic and endocrine functions. From a metabolic point of view, sufficient increases in ATBF after meals permits full storage of excess energy into fat, thus protecting other tissues against the toxic effects of fatty acids and glucose spillover. It was previously shown that postprandial increases in ATBF are blunted in obese and insulin-resistant subjects, and that much of the postprandial ATBF response is the result of β-adrenergic activation. Examination of previously recorded data on postprandial ATBF responses revealed an underlying heterogeneity, with postprandial ATBF being largely unresponsive to food stimuli in a substantial proportion of normal weight healthy people (low responders). Our study tests the hypothesis that this unresponsive pattern is due to resistance to β-adrenergic stimulation in adipose tissue. METHODS: Five responders and five low responders were selected from a previously studied cohort and matched for BMI (20.5±0.7 vs 22±1 kg/m(2), respectively), gender (male/female: 2/3) and age (30±3 vs 37±6 years). Subcutaneous adipose tissue microinfusions of stepwise increasing doses of isoproterenol were performed with concomitant monitoring of blood flow, using the (133)Xenon washout technique. RESULTS: Although BMI was similar between responders and low responders, there were significant differences in fat mass (9.9±1.6 vs 14.4±1.6 kg; P<0.05) and four-point skinfold thickness (33±4 vs 52±16 mm; P<0.05). Lack of ATBF response to oral glucose was confirmed in the low responder group. In responders, ATBF was higher at baseline (5.4±1 vs 3.4±1 mL/min/100 g of tissue) and responded more distinctly to increasing isoproterenol doses (10(-8) M: 7.6±1.4 vs 4.9±1; 10(-6) M: 12.5±1.7 vs 7.5±1.6; and 10(-4) M: 20 ±1.7 vs 9±0.9 mL/min/100 g of tissue). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the lack of glucose-stimulated ATBF is associated with resistance to sympathetic activation in adipose tissue.

Watts GF, Karpe F. 2011. Why, when and how should hypertriglyceridemia be treated in the high-risk cardiovascular patient? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther, 9 (8), pp. 987-997. | Show Abstract | Read more

Recent epidemiology attests that hypertriglyceridemia may be a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The specific atherogenicity of hypertriglyceridemia relates to the accumulation in plasma of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants. Hypertriglyceridemia also drives a 'global' atherogenic dyslipidemic profile, which is frequent in high-risk cardiovascular patients, such as Type 2 diabetics. Elevated triglyceride in fasting or nonfasting blood samples should be a trigger for assessing atherogenic components of the lipid profile, particularly HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB. Residual risk of CVD remains high in statin-treated diabetic patients owing to persistent atherogenic dyslipidemia, which is not fully corrected by these agents nor by the addition of ezetimibe. Hypertriglyceridemia may then be targeted with niacin, fibrates or n-3 fatty acids, after correcting aggravating factors, especially obesity and hyperglycemia. Fibrates consistently decrease coronary events in dyslipidemic patients in outcome studies. New evidence supports adding fenofibrate to a statin in Type 2 diabetics with residual hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol; extrapolating from a recent meta-analysis, a 15% reduction in triglycerides could translate into a further 15% reduction in coronary events. Ongoing clinical trials may provide new evidence for adding niacin to a statin. The value of higher doses of n-3 fatty acids in reducing CVD risk remains to be demonstrated. The high triglyceride/low HDL nexus is an under-recognized risk factor for CVD that merits more detailed clinical assessment and treatment, particularly in patients with Type 2 diabetes already receiving a statin.

Andersson J, Karpe F, Sjöström LG, Riklund K, Söderberg S, Olsson T. 2012. Association of adipose tissue blood flow with fat depot sizes and adipokines in women. Int J Obes (Lond), 36 (6), pp. 783-789. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: To explore possible associations between adipose tissue (AT) blood flow (ATBF), AT depot sizes and adipocyte-derived hormones (adipokines) in women. SUBJECTS: In all, 43 healthy women were divided into four groups: normal-weight (n=11) and obese (n=11) pre-menopausal women and normal-weight (n=10) and obese (n=11) post-menopausal women. METHODS: Fasting levels of adipokines were obtained, and a single-slice computed tomography scan at the level of L4-L5 was used to estimate fat depot sizes. ATBF was assessed by xenon washout while in a fasting state and after oral glucose load. We also measured glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids. RESULTS: Total, subcutaneous and visceral AT areas strongly correlated with ATBF (all P<0.001). Circulating leptin levels strongly and inversely correlated with ATBF (P=0.001), but this association did not remain after adjustment for body mass index. Adiponectin was not associated with blood flow. CONCLUSION: ATBF is closely linked to subcutaneous and visceral AT size. Further analyses are needed to determine possible mediators of this association, including mechanistic studies to assess a putative role for leptin as a significant modulator of blood flow.

Watts GF, Karpe F. 2011. Triglycerides and atherogenic dyslipidaemia: extending treatment beyond statins in the high-risk cardiovascular patient. Heart, 97 (5), pp. 350-356. | Show Abstract | Read more

Although statins significantly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), residual CVD risk remains high. This may partly be due to uncorrected atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The driving force behind atherogenic dyslipidaemia is hypertriglyceridaemia, which results from hepatic oversecretion and/or hypocatabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and is typical of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Persistent atherogenic dyslipidaemia in patients treated with a statin according to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol goals may be corrected with niacin, fibrates or n-3 fatty acids. Clinical trial evidence to inform best practice is limited, but new data support adding fenofibrate to a statin. A consistent feature of fibrate clinical trials is the specific benefit of these agents in dyslipidaemic patients and the improvement in diabetic retinopathy with fenofibrate. Ongoing clinical trials may provide good evidence for adding niacin to a statin. Low-dose n-3 fatty acids could be used routinely after a myocardial infarction, but the value of higher doses of n-3 fatty acids in reducing CVD risk remains to be demonstrated.

Clark J, Anderson KE, Juvin V, Smith TS, Karpe F, Wakelam MJ, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT. 2011. Quantification of PtdInsP3 molecular species in cells and tissues by mass spectrometry. Nat Methods, 8 (3), pp. 267-272. | Show Abstract | Read more

Class I phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms generate the intracellular signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)). PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) regulates major aspects of cellular behavior, and the use of both genetic and pharmacological intervention has revealed important isoform-specific roles for PI3Ks in health and disease. Despite this interest, current methods for measuring PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) have major limitations, including insensitivity, reliance on radiolabeling, low throughput and an inability to resolve different fatty-acyl species. We introduce a methodology based on phosphate methylation coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to solve many of these problems and describe an integrated approach to quantify PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and related phosphoinositides (regio-isomers of PtdInsP and PtdInsP(2) are not resolved). This methodology can be used to quantify multiple fatty-acyl species of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) in unstimulated mouse and human cells (≥10(5)) or tissues (≥0.1 mg) and their increase upon appropriate stimulation.

Marinou K, Adiels M, Hodson L, Frayn KN, Karpe F, Fielding BA. 2011. Young women partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG synthesis, compared with young men. Br J Nutr, 105 (6), pp. 857-865. | Show Abstract | Read more

Before the menopause, women are relatively protected against CVD compared with men. The reasons for this sex difference are not completely understood, but hepatic fatty acid metabolism may play a role. The present study aimed to investigate the utilisation of plasma NEFA by the liver and to determine whether they are partitioned differently into ketone bodies and VLDL-TAG in healthy, lean young men and women. Volunteers were studied during a prolonged overnight fast (12-19 h) using an intravenous infusion of [U-¹³C]palmitate. After 12 h fasting, the women had a more advantageous metabolic profile with lower plasma glucose (P < 0·05) and TAG (P < 0·05) but higher plasma NEFA (P < 0·05) concentrations. Plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) concentrations rose more in women than in men, and the transfer of ¹³C from [U-¹³C]palmitate to plasma [¹³C]3-OHB reached a plateau 6-7 h after the start of the infusion in women but was still increasing at 6 h in men. This implies a slower 3-OHB production rate and/or dilution by other precursor pools in men. In women, the high isotopic enrichment of plasma 3-OHB suggested that systemic plasma fatty acids were the major source of 3-OHB production. However, in men, this was not observed during the course of the study (P < 0·01). There were no sex differences for the incorporation of ¹³C into VLDL1- or VLDL2-TAG. The ability of young women to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG may contribute to their more advantageous metabolic profile compared with young men.

Trachtenberg AJ, Filippini N, Cheeseman J, Duff EP, Neville MJ, Ebmeier KP, Karpe F, Mackay CE. 2012. The effects of APOE on brain activity do not simply reflect the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging, 33 (3), pp. 618.e1-618.e13. | Show Abstract | Read more

Possession of the APOE-ε4 allele is the best established genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), while the ε2 allele may confer protection against the disease. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown an effect of APOE genotype on brain function, typically by comparing only ε4 carriers with noncarriers. Here we included a wide range of genotype groups to determine how closely the effects of APOE on brain function are related to differences in relative risk for AD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the pattern of activation during an episodic encoding task and during a counting Stroop task in 76 adults, aged 32 to 55, with different APOE genotypes (23 ε2/ε3, 20 ε3/ε3, 26 ε3/ε4, and 7 ε4/ε4). Strikingly, participants with an increased risk (ε4 carriers) and with a decreased risk (ε2 carriers) for AD both showed increased activation, relative to ε3 homozygotes, during both tasks. The increased activation was due to decreased deactivation or paradoxical activation of nontask-related regions of the brain, which suggests an intrinsic effect of APOE on the differentiation of functional cortical networks. These results question the often assumed link between APOE, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response, and AD risk.

Hodson L, Banerjee R, Cheeseman J, Karpe F, Fielding BA. 2011. A large waist circumference is associated with higher liver fat in healthy pre-menopausal women in the absence of classical biochemical risk factors for CVD PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, 70 (OCE4), pp. E229-E229. | Read more

Strawbridge RJ, Dupuis J, Prokopenko I, Barker A, Ahlqvist E, Rybin D, Petrie JR, Travers ME et al. 2011. Genome-wide association identifies nine common variants associated with fasting proinsulin levels and provides new insights into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 60 (10), pp. 2624-2634. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Proinsulin is a precursor of mature insulin and C-peptide. Higher circulating proinsulin levels are associated with impaired β-cell function, raised glucose levels, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies of the insulin processing pathway could provide new insights about T2D pathophysiology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We have conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association tests of ∼2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and fasting proinsulin levels in 10,701 nondiabetic adults of European ancestry, with follow-up of 23 loci in up to 16,378 individuals, using additive genetic models adjusted for age, sex, fasting insulin, and study-specific covariates. RESULTS: Nine SNPs at eight loci were associated with proinsulin levels (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Two loci (LARP6 and SGSM2) have not been previously related to metabolic traits, one (MADD) has been associated with fasting glucose, one (PCSK1) has been implicated in obesity, and four (TCF7L2, SLC30A8, VPS13C/C2CD4A/B, and ARAP1, formerly CENTD2) increase T2D risk. The proinsulin-raising allele of ARAP1 was associated with a lower fasting glucose (P = 1.7 × 10(-4)), improved β-cell function (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)), and lower risk of T2D (odds ratio 0.88; P = 7.8 × 10(-6)). Notably, PCSK1 encodes the protein prohormone convertase 1/3, the first enzyme in the insulin processing pathway. A genotype score composed of the nine proinsulin-raising alleles was not associated with coronary disease in two large case-control datasets. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified nine genetic variants associated with fasting proinsulin. Our findings illuminate the biology underlying glucose homeostasis and T2D development in humans and argue against a direct role of proinsulin in coronary artery disease pathogenesis.

Marinou K, Adiels M, Hodson L, Frayn KN, Karpe F, Fielding BA. 2011. Young women partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG synthesis, compared with young men British Journal of Nutrition, 105 (6), pp. 857-865. | Show Abstract | Read more

Before the menopause, women are relatively protected against CVD compared with men. The reasons for this sex difference are not completely understood, but hepatic fatty acid metabolism may play a role. The present study aimed to investigate the utilisation of plasma NEFA by the liver and to determine whether they are partitioned differently into ketone bodies and VLDL-TAG in healthy, lean young men and women. Volunteers were studied during a prolonged overnight fast (12-19h) using an intravenous infusion of [U-13C]palmitate. After 12h fasting, the women had a more advantageous metabolic profile with lower plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and TAG (P < .05) but higher plasma NEFA (P < 0.05) concentrations. Plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) concentrations rose more in women than in men, and the transfer of 13C from [U- 13C]palmitate to plasma [13C]3-OHB reached a plateau 6-7h after the start of the infusion in women but was still increasing at 6h in men. This implies a slower 3-OHB production rate and/or dilution by other precursor pools in men. In women, the high isotopic enrichment of plasma 3-OHB suggested that systemic plasma fatty acids were the major source of 3-OHB production. However, in men, this was not observed during the course of the study (P < 0.01). There were no sex differences for the incorporation of 13C into VLDL1-or VLDL2-TAG. The ability of young women to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG may contribute to their more advantageous metabolic profile compared with young men. © The Authors 2011.

Cited:

22

Scopus

Antoniades C, Cunnington C, Antonopoulos A, Neville M, Margaritis M, Demosthenous M, Bendall J, Hale A et al. 2011. Induction of vascular GTP-cyclohydrolase i and endogenous tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis protect against inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction in human atherosclerosis Circulation, 124 (17), pp. 1860-1870. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND-: The endothelial nitric oxide synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is essential for maintenance of enzymatic function. We hypothesized that induction of BH4 synthesis might be an endothelial defense mechanism against inflammation in vascular disease states. METHODS AND RESULTS-: In Study 1, 20 healthy individuals were randomized to receive Salmonella typhi vaccine (a model of acute inflammation) or placebo in a double-blind study. Vaccination increased circulating BH4 and interleukin 6 and induced endothelial dysfunction (as evaluated by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation) after 8 hours. In Study 2, a functional haplotype (X haplotype) in the GCH1 gene, encoding GTP-cyclohydrolase I, the rate-limiting enzyme in biopterin biosynthesis, was associated with endothelial dysfunction in the presence of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in 440 coronary artery disease patients. In Study 3, 10 patients with coronary artery disease homozygotes for the GCH1 X haplotype (XX) and 40 without the haplotype (OO) underwent S Typhi vaccination. XX patients were unable to increase plasma BH4 and had a greater reduction of flow-mediated dilation than OO patients. In Study 4, vessel segments from 19 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery were incubated with or without cytokines (interleukin-6/tumor necrosis factor-α/lipopolysaccharide) for 24 hours. Cytokine stimulation upregulated GCH1 expression, increased vascular BH4, and improved vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine, which was inhibited by the GTP-cyclohydrolase inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine. CONCLUSIONS-: The ability to increase vascular GCH1 expression and BH4 synthesis in response to inflammation preserves endothelial function in inflammatory states. These novel findings identify BH4 as a vascular defense mechanism against inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Rantalainen M, Herrera BM, Nicholson G, Bowden R, Wills QF, Min JL, Neville MJ, Barrett A et al. 2011. MicroRNA expression in abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue is associated with mRNA expression levels and partly genetically driven. PLoS One, 6 (11), pp. e27338. | Show Abstract | Read more

To understand how miRNAs contribute to the molecular phenotype of adipose tissues and related traits, we performed global miRNA expression profiling in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue of 70 human subjects and characterised which miRNAs were differentially expressed between these tissues. We found that 12% of the miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue (FDR adjusted p<0.05) in the primary study, of which 59 replicated in a follow-up study of 40 additional subjects. Further, 14 miRNAs were found to be associated with metabolic syndrome case-control status in abdominal tissue and three of these replicated (primary study: FDR adjusted p<0.05, replication: p<0.05 and directionally consistent effect). Genome-wide genotyping was performed in the 70 subjects to enable miRNA expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis. Candidate miRNA eQTLs were followed-up in the additional 40 subjects and six significant, independent cis-located miRNA eQTLs (primary study: p<0.001; replication: p<0.05 and directionally consistent effect) were identified. Finally, global mRNA expression profiling was performed in both tissues to enable association analysis between miRNA and target mRNA expression levels. We find 22% miRNAs in abdominal and 9% miRNAs in gluteal adipose tissue with expression levels significantly associated with the expression of corresponding target mRNAs (FDR adjusted p<0.05). Taken together, our results indicate a clear difference in the miRNA molecular phenotypic profile of abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, that the expressions of some miRNAs are influenced by cis-located genetic variants and that miRNAs are associated with expression levels of their predicted mRNA targets.

Heid IM, Jackson AU, Randall JC, Winkler TW, Qi L, Steinthorsdottir V, Thorleifsson G, Zillikens MC et al. 2011. Erratum: Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution (Nature Genetics (2010) 42 (949-960)) Nature Genetics, 43 (11), pp. 1164. | Read more

Heid IM, Jackson AU, Randall JC, Winkler TW, Qi L, Steinthorsdottir V, Thorleifsson G, Zillikens MC et al. 2011. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution. Nat Genet, 43 (11), pp. 1164. | Read more

Watts GF, Karpe F. 2011. Why, when and how should hypertriglyceridemia be treated in the high-risk cardiovascular patient? Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, 9 (8), pp. 987-997. | Show Abstract | Read more

Recent epidemiology attests that hypertriglyceridemia may be a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The specific atherogenicity of hypertriglyceridemia relates to the accumulation in plasma of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants. Hypertriglyceridemia also drives a 'global' atherogenic dyslipidemic profile, which is frequent in high-risk cardiovascular patients, such as Type 2 diabetics. Elevated triglyceride in fasting or nonfasting blood samples should be a trigger for assessing atherogenic components of the lipid profile, particularly HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB. Residual risk of CVD remains high in statin-treated diabetic patients owing to persistent atherogenic dyslipidemia, which is not fully corrected by these agents nor by the addition of ezetimibe. Hypertriglyceridemia may then be targeted with niacin, fibrates or n-3 fatty acids, after correcting aggravating factors, especially obesity and hyperglycemia. Fibrates consistently decrease coronary events in dyslipidemic patients in outcome studies. New evidence supports adding fenofibrate to a statin in Type 2 diabetics with residual hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol; extrapolating from a recent meta-analysis, a 15% reduction in triglycerides could translate into a further 15% reduction in coronary events. Ongoing clinical trials may provide new evidence for adding niacin to a statin. The value of higher doses of n-3 fatty acids in reducing CVD risk remains to be demonstrated. The high triglyceride/low HDL nexus is an under-recognized risk factor for CVD that merits more detailed clinical assessment and treatment, particularly in patients with Type 2 diabetes already receiving a statin. © 2011 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Ardilouze J-L, Sotorník R, Dennis LA, Fielding BA, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2011. Failure to increase postprandial blood flow in subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with tissue resistance to adrenergic stimulation Diabetes and Metabolism,

Trachtenberg AJ, Filippini N, Ebmeier KP, Smith SM, Karpe F, Mackay CE. 2012. The effects of APOE on the functional architecture of the resting brain. Neuroimage, 59 (1), pp. 565-572. | Show Abstract | Read more

There is a well-established association between APOE genotype and the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Relative to individuals with the common ε3/ε3 genotype, carriers of the ε4 allele are at increased risk of developing AD, while carriers of the ε2 allele appear to be protected against the disease. However, we recently reported that in a sample of cognitively healthy adults, both ε4 and ε2 carriers showed nearly identical changes in the pattern of fMRI activity during memory and non-memory tasks, relative to ε3 homozygotes. These findings suggest that the effects of APOE on brain function are not tightly linked to the effects of this gene on AD risk. Here we test the hypothesis that APOE has an intrinsic effect on the brain's functional networks. Resting-state fMRI was used to compare the pattern of functional connectivity of a variety of resting-state networks between 77 cognitively healthy participants aged 32 to 55 with different APOE genotypes (23 ε2/ε3, 20 ε3/ε3, 26 ε3/ε4, and 8 ε4/ε4). Differences between genotype groups were found in two hippocampal networks, the auditory network, the left frontal-parietal network, and the lateral visual network. While there was considerable variety in the brain regions affected and the direction of change across networks, the main finding was that changes in functional connectivity were similar in ε4 and ε2 carriers, relative to ε3 homozygotes. APOE appears to have an intrinsic effect on the differentiation of functional networks in the brain. This effect is apparent in cognitively healthy adults and does not manifest in a manner reflective of the link between APOE and AD risk. Rather, the effects of APOE on brain function may relate to the role of this gene in neurodevelopment.

Vasan SK, Neville MJ, Antonisamy B, Samuel P, Fall CH, Geethanjali FS, Thomas N, Raghupathy P, Brismar K, Karpe F. 2011. Absence of birth-weight lowering effect of ADCY5 and near CCNL, but association of impaired glucose-insulin homeostasis with ADCY5 in Asian Indians. PLoS One, 6 (6), pp. e21331. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: A feature of the Asian Indian phenotype is low birth weight with increased adult type 2 diabetes risk. Most populations show consistent associations between low birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes. Recently, two birth weight-lowering loci on chromosome 3 (near CCNL1 and ADCY5) were identified in a genome-wide association study, the latter of which is also a type 2 diabetes locus. We therefore tested the impact of these genetic variants on birth weight and adult glucose/insulin homeostasis in a large Indian birth cohort. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults (n = 2,151) enrolled in a birth cohort (established 1969-73) were genotyped for rs900400 (near CCNL1) and rs9883204 (ADCY5). Associations were tested for birth weight, anthropometry from infancy to adulthood, and type 2 diabetes related glycemic traits. The average birth weight in this population was 2.79±0.47 kg and was not associated with genetic variation in CCNL1 (p = 0.87) or ADCY5 (p = 0.54). Allele frequencies for the 'birth weight-lowering' variants were similar compared with Western populations. There were no significant associations with growth or adult weight. However, the 'birth weight-lowering' variant of ADCY5 was associated with modest increase in fasting glucose (β 0.041, p = 0.027), 2-hours glucose (β 0.127, p = 0.019), and reduced insulinogenic index (β -0.106, p = 0.050) and 2-hour insulin (β -0.058, p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The low birth weight in Asian Indians is not even partly explained by genetic variants near CCNL1 and ADCY5 which implies that non-genetic factors may predominate. However, the 'birth-weight-lowering' variant of ADCY5 was associated with elevated glucose and decreased insulin response in early adulthood which argues for a common genetic cause of low birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes.

Marinou K, Adiels M, Hodson L, Frayn KN, Karpe F, Fielding BA. 2011. Young women partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG synthesis, compared with young men. The British journal of nutrition, 105 (6), pp. 857-865.

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Neville MJ, Collins JM, Gloyn AL, McCarthy MI, Karpe F. 2011. Comprehensive human adipose tissue mRNA and MicroRNA endogenous control selection for quantitative real-time-PCR normalization Obesity, 19 (4), pp. 888-892. | Show Abstract | Read more

The accurate quantification of cellular and tissue mRNA and microRNA content is reliant upon the selection of stable endogenous control transcripts for normalizing quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) data. Using the combination of unbiased and informed approaches and a wide range of human adipose tissues and cells, we sought to identify invariant control transcripts for mRNA and microRNA. A total of 26 mRNA transcript candidates were selected from the literature. MicroRNA candidates were selected from a microRNA-microarray (Agilent, n = 22 tissues), and together with candidates from the literature resulted in 14 different microRNAs. The variability of these mRNA and microRNA transcripts were then tested in a large (n = 180) collection of a variety of human adipose tissues and cell samples. Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (PGK1) and peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) were identified as the most stable mRNAs across all tissues and panels. MiR-103 was overall the most stable microRNA transcript across all biological backgrounds. Several proposed and commonly used normalization transcripts were found to be highly variable. We then tested the effect on expression of two established adipocyte-related transcripts (fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and microRNA-145 (miR-145)), either normalized to the optimal or a commonly used controls transcript. This test clearly indicated that spurious results could arise from using less stable control transcripts for mRNA and microRNA qRT-PCR. © 2010 The Obesity Society.

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Clark J, Anderson KE, Juvin V, Smith TS, Karpe F, Wakelam MJO, Stephens LR, Hawkins PT. 2011. Quantification of PtdInsP3 molecular species in cells and tissues by mass spectrometry Nature Methods, 8 (3), pp. 267-272. | Show Abstract | Read more

Class I phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms generate the intracellular signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3). PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 regulates major aspects of cellular behavior, and the use of both genetic and pharmacological intervention has revealed important isoform-specific roles for PI3Ks in health and disease. Despite this interest, current methods for measuring PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 have major limitations, including insensitivity, reliance on radiolabeling, low throughput and an inability to resolve different fatty-acyl species. We introduce a methodology based on phosphate methylation coupled to high-performance liquid chromatographyg-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to solve many of these problems and describe an integrated approach to quantify PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and related phosphoinositides (regio-isomers of PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 are not resolved). This methodology can be used to quantify multiple fatty-acyl species of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in unstimulated mouse and human cells (≥105) or tissues (≥0.1 mg) and their increase upon appropriate stimulation. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cited:

23

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Pinnick KE, Karpe F. 2011. DNA methylation of genes in adipose tissue Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 70 (1), pp. 57-63. | Show Abstract | Read more

Body fat distribution plays an important role in determining metabolic health. Whereas central obesity is closely associated with the development of CVD and type 2 diabetes, lower body fat appears to be protective and is paradoxically associated with improved metabolic and cardiovascular profiles. Physiological studies have demonstrated that fatty acid handling differs between white adipose tissue depots, with lower body white adipose tissue acting as a more efficient site for long-term lipid storage. The regulatory mechanisms governing these regional differences in function remain to be elucidated. Although the local microenvironment is likely to be a contributing factor, recent findings point towards the tissues being intrinsically distinct at the level of the adipocyte precursor cells (pre-adipocytes). The multi-potent pre-adipocytes are capable of generating cells of the mesenchymal lineage, including adipocytes. Regional differences in the adipogenic and replicative potential of these cells, as well as metabolic and biochemical activity, have been reported. Intriguingly, the genetic and metabolic characteristics of these cells can be retained through multiple generations when the cells are cultured in vitro. The rapidly emerging field of epigenetics may hold the key for explaining regional differences in white adipose tissue gene expression and function. Epigenetics describes the regulation of gene expression that occurs independently of changes in DNA sequence, for instance, DNA methylation or histone protein modification. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of DNA methylation to the determination of cells of adipogenic fate as well as the role DNA methylation may play during adipocyte terminal differentiation. © 2010 The Author.

Pinnick KE, Karpe F. 2011. DNA methylation of genes in adipose tissue. Proc Nutr Soc, 70 (1), pp. 57-63. | Show Abstract | Read more

Body fat distribution plays an important role in determining metabolic health. Whereas central obesity is closely associated with the development of CVD and type 2 diabetes, lower body fat appears to be protective and is paradoxically associated with improved metabolic and cardiovascular profiles. Physiological studies have demonstrated that fatty acid handling differs between white adipose tissue depots, with lower body white adipose tissue acting as a more efficient site for long-term lipid storage. The regulatory mechanisms governing these regional differences in function remain to be elucidated. Although the local microenvironment is likely to be a contributing factor, recent findings point towards the tissues being intrinsically distinct at the level of the adipocyte precursor cells (pre-adipocytes). The multi-potent pre-adipocytes are capable of generating cells of the mesenchymal lineage, including adipocytes. Regional differences in the adipogenic and replicative potential of these cells, as well as metabolic and biochemical activity, have been reported. Intriguingly, the genetic and metabolic characteristics of these cells can be retained through multiple generations when the cells are cultured in vitro. The rapidly emerging field of epigenetics may hold the key for explaining regional differences in white adipose tissue gene expression and function. Epigenetics describes the regulation of gene expression that occurs independently of changes in DNA sequence, for instance, DNA methylation or histone protein modification. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of DNA methylation to the determination of cells of adipogenic fate as well as the role DNA methylation may play during adipocyte terminal differentiation.

Neville MJ, Collins JM, Gloyn AL, McCarthy MI, Karpe F. 2011. Comprehensive human adipose tissue mRNA and microRNA endogenous control selection for quantitative real-time-PCR normalization. Obesity (Silver Spring), 19 (4), pp. 888-892. | Show Abstract | Read more

The accurate quantification of cellular and tissue mRNA and microRNA content is reliant upon the selection of stable endogenous control transcripts for normalizing quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) data. Using the combination of unbiased and informed approaches and a wide range of human adipose tissues and cells, we sought to identify invariant control transcripts for mRNA and microRNA. A total of 26 mRNA transcript candidates were selected from the literature. MicroRNA candidates were selected from a microRNA-microarray (Agilent, n = 22 tissues), and together with candidates from the literature resulted in 14 different microRNAs. The variability of these mRNA and microRNA transcripts were then tested in a large (n = 180) collection of a variety of human adipose tissues and cell samples. Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (PGK1) and peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) were identified as the most stable mRNAs across all tissues and panels. MiR-103 was overall the most stable microRNA transcript across all biological backgrounds. Several proposed and commonly used normalization transcripts were found to be highly variable. We then tested the effect on expression of two established adipocyte-related transcripts (fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and microRNA-145 (miR-145)), either normalized to the optimal or a commonly used controls transcript. This test clearly indicated that spurious results could arise from using less stable control transcripts for mRNA and microRNA qRT-PCR.

McQuaid SE, Hodson L, Neville MJ, Dennis AL, Cheeseman J, Humphreys SM, Ruge T, Gilbert M, Fielding BA, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2011. Downregulation of adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking in obesity: a driver for ectopic fat deposition? Diabetes, 60 (1), pp. 47-55. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Lipotoxicity and ectopic fat deposition reduce insulin signaling. It is not clear whether excess fat deposition in nonadipose tissue arises from excessive fatty acid delivery from adipose tissue or from impaired adipose tissue storage of ingested fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To investigate this we used a whole-body integrative physiological approach with multiple and simultaneous stable-isotope fatty acid tracers to assess delivery and transport of endogenous and exogenous fatty acid in adipose tissue over a diurnal cycle in lean (n = 9) and abdominally obese men (n = 10). RESULTS: Abdominally obese men had substantially (2.5-fold) greater adipose tissue mass than lean control subjects, but the rates of delivery of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were downregulated, resulting in normal systemic NEFA concentrations over a 24-h period. However, adipose tissue fat storage after meals was substantially depressed in the obese men. This was especially so for chylomicron-derived fatty acids, representing the direct storage pathway for dietary fat. Adipose tissue from the obese men showed a transcriptional signature consistent with this impaired fat storage function. CONCLUSIONS: Enlargement of adipose tissue mass leads to an appropriate downregulation of systemic NEFA delivery with maintained plasma NEFA concentrations. However the implicit reduction in adipose tissue fatty acid uptake goes beyond this and shows a maladaptive response with a severely impaired pathway for direct dietary fat storage. This adipose tissue response to obesity may provide the pathophysiological basis for ectopic fat deposition and lipotoxicity.

Heid IM, Jackson AU, Randall JC, Winkler TW, Qi L, Steinthorsdottir V, Thorleifsson G, Zillikens MC et al. 2010. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution. Nat Genet, 42 (11), pp. 949-960. | Show Abstract | Read more

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10⁻⁹ to P = 1.8 × 10⁻⁴⁰) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10⁻³ to P = 1.2 × 10⁻¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.

Speliotes EK, Willer CJ, Berndt SI, Monda KL, Thorleifsson G, Jackson AU, Lango Allen H, Lindgren CM et al. 2010. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nat Genet, 42 (11), pp. 937-948. | Show Abstract | Read more

Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and ∼ 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.

Owen KR, Thanabalasingham G, James TJ, Karpe F, Farmer AJ, McCarthy MI, Gloyn AL. 2010. Assessment of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels as diagnostic discriminator of maturity-onset diabetes of the young due to HNF1A mutations. Diabetes Care, 33 (9), pp. 1919-1924. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Despite the clinical importance of an accurate diagnosis in individuals with monogenic forms of diabetes, restricted access to genetic testing leaves many patients with undiagnosed diabetes. Recently, common variation near the HNF1 homeobox A (HNF1A) gene was shown to influence C-reactive protein levels in healthy adults. We hypothesized that serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) could represent a clinically useful biomarker for the identification of HNF1A mutations causing maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum hs-CRP was measured in subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 31), autoimmune diabetes (n = 316), type 2 diabetes (n = 240), and glucokinase (GCK) MODY (n = 24) and in nondiabetic individuals (n = 198). The discriminative accuracy of hs-CRP was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and performance was compared with standard diagnostic criteria. Our primary analyses excluded approximately 11% of subjects in whom the single available hs-CRP measurement was >10 mg/l. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD range) hs-CRP levels were significantly lower (P <or= 0.009) for HNF1A-MODY individuals, 0.20 (0.03-1.14) mg/l, than for any other group: autoimmune diabetes 0.58 (0.10-2.75) mg/l, type 2 diabetes 1.33 (0.28-6.14) mg/l, GCK-MODY 1.01 (0.19-5.33) mg/l, and nondiabetic 0.48 (0.10-2.42) mg/l. The ROC-derived C-statistic for discriminating HNF1A-MODY and type 2 diabetes was 0.8. Measurement of hs-CRP, either alone or in combination with current diagnostic criteria, was superior to current diagnostic criteria alone. Sensitivity and specificity for the combined criteria approached 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Serum hs-CRP levels are markedly lower in HNF1A-MODY than in other forms of diabetes. hs-CRP has potential as a widely available, cost-effective screening test to support more precise targeting of MODY diagnostic testing.

McQuaid SE, Humphreys SM, Hodson L, Fielding BA, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2010. Femoral adipose tissue may accumulate the fat that has been recycled as VLDL and nonesterified fatty acids. Diabetes, 59 (10), pp. 2465-2473. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Gluteo-femoral, in contrast to abdominal, fat accumulation appears protective against diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that this reflects differences in the ability of the two depots to sequester fatty acids, with gluteo-femoral fat acting as a longer-term "sink." RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 12 healthy volunteers were studied after an overnight fast and after ingestion of a mixed meal. Blood samples were taken from veins draining subcutaneous femoral and abdominal fat and compared with arterialized blood samples. Stable isotope-labeled fatty acids were used to trace specific lipid fractions. In 36 subjects, adipose tissue blood flow in the two depots was monitored with (133)Xe. RESULTS: Blood flow increased in response to the meal in both depots, and these responses were correlated (r(s) = 0.44, P < 0.01). Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) release was suppressed after the meal in both depots; it was lower in femoral fat than in abdominal fat (P < 0.01). Plasma triacylglycerol (TG) extraction by femoral fat was also lower than that by abdominal fat (P = 0.05). Isotopic tracers showed that the difference was in chylomicron-TG extraction. VLDL-TG extraction and direct NEFA uptake were similar in the two depots. CONCLUSIONS: Femoral fat shows lower metabolic fluxes than subcutaneous abdominal fat, but differs in its relative preference for extracting fatty acids directly from the plasma NEFA and VLDL-TG pools compared with chylomicron-TG.

Hodson L, McQuaid SE, Humphreys SM, Milne R, Fielding BA, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2010. Greater dietary fat oxidation in obese compared with lean men: an adaptive mechanism to prevent liver fat accumulation? Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 299 (4), pp. E584-E592. | Show Abstract | Read more

Liver fat represents a balance between input, secretion, and oxidation of fatty acids. As humans spend the majority of a 24-h period in a postprandial state, dietary fatty acids make an important contribution to liver fat metabolism. We compared hepatic fatty acid partitioning in healthy lean (n = 9) and abdominally obese (n = 10) males over 24 h. Volunteers received three mixed meals adjusted for basal metabolic rate. U-13C-labeled fatty acids were incorporated into the meals, and [2H2]palmitate was infused intravenously to distinguish between sources of fatty acids incorporated into VLDL-TG. Immunoaffinity chromatography was used to isolate VLDL-TG of hepatic origin. Liver and whole body fatty acid oxidation was assessed by isotopic enrichment of 3-hydoxybutyrate and breath CO2. We found a similar contribution of dietary fatty acids to VLDL-TG in the two groups over 24 h. The contribution of fatty acids from splanchnic sources was higher (P < 0.05) in the abdominally obese group. Ketogenesis occurred to a significantly greater extent in abdominally obese compared with lean males, largely due to lessened downregulation of postprandial ketogenesis (P < 0.001). The appearance of 13C in breath CO2 was also greater (P < 0.001) in abdominally obese compared with lean men. Hepatic elongation and desaturation of palmitic acid were higher (P < 0.05) in abdominally obese than in lean males. Oxidation of dietary fatty acids and hepatic desaturation and elongation of palmitic acid occurred to a greater extent in abdominally obese men. These alterations may represent further pathways for redirection of fatty acids into export from the liver or oxidation to prevent liver fat accumulation.

Formenti F, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Emmanuel Y, Cheeseman J, Dorrington KL, Edwards LM, Humphreys SM, Lappin TR et al. 2010. Regulation of human metabolism by hypoxia-inducible factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107 (28), pp. 12722-12727. | Show Abstract | Read more

The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors directs a coordinated cellular response to hypoxia that includes the transcriptional regulation of a number of metabolic enzymes. Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is an autosomal recessive human disorder in which the regulatory degradation of HIF is impaired, resulting in elevated levels of HIF at normal oxygen tensions. Apart from the polycythemia, CP patients have marked abnormalities of cardiopulmonary function. No studies of integrated metabolic function have been reported. Here we describe the response of these patients to a series of metabolic stresses: exercise of a large muscle mass on a cycle ergometer, exercise of a small muscle mass (calf muscle) which allowed noninvasive in vivo assessments of muscle metabolism using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and a standard meal tolerance test. During exercise, CP patients had early and marked phosphocreatine depletion and acidosis in skeletal muscle, greater accumulation of lactate in blood, and reduced maximum exercise capacities. Muscle biopsy specimens from CP patients showed elevated levels of transcript for pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, phosphofructokinase, and muscle pyruvate kinase. In cell culture, a range of experimental manipulations have been used to study the effects of HIF on cellular metabolism. However, these approaches provide no potential to investigate integrated responses at the level of the whole organism. Although CP is relatively subtle disorder, our study now reveals a striking regulatory role for HIF on metabolism during exercise in humans. These findings have significant implications for the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the HIF pathway.

Funada J, Dennis AL, Roberts R, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2010. Regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow is related to measures of vascular and autonomic function. Clin Sci (Lond), 119 (8), pp. 313-322. | Show Abstract | Read more

Appropriate blood vessel function is important to cardiovascular health. Adipose tissue plays an important role in metabolic homoeostasis, and subcutaneous abdominal ATBF (adipose tissue blood flow) is responsive to nutritional stimuli. This response is impaired in obesity, suggesting parallels with endothelial function. In the present study, we assessed whether regulation of ATBF is related to the regulation of endothelial function, assessed by FMD (flow-mediated vasodilatation) of the brachial artery. Impaired FMD is a marker of atherosclerotic risk, so we also assessed relationships between ATBF and a marker of atherosclerosis, common carotid artery IMT (intima-media thickness). As ATBF is responsive to sympatho-adrenal stimuli, we also investigated relationships with HRV (heart rate variability). A total of 79 healthy volunteers (44 female) were studied after fasting and after ingestion of 75 g of glucose. FMD, fasting ATBF and the responsiveness of ATBF to glucose were all negatively related to BMI (body mass index), confirming the adverse cardiovascular effects of adiposity. FMD was related to fasting ATBF (rs=0.32, P=0.008) and, at least in males, this relationship was independent of BMI (P=0.02). Common carotid artery IMT, measured in a subset of participants, was negatively related to fasting ATBF [rs=-0.51, P=0.02 (n=20)]. On the other hand, ATBF responsiveness to glucose had no relationship with either FMD or IMT. In multiple regression models, both fasting and stimulated ATBF had relationships with HRV. In conclusion, our results show that the regulation of ATBF has features in common with endothelial function, but also relationships with autonomic cardiovascular control as reflected in HRV.

Karpe F, Chamas L. 2010. Hyperlipidaemia and cardiovascular disease: nonantilipolytic effects of nicotinic acid in adipose tissue. Curr Opin Lipidol, 21 (3), pp. 282-283. | Read more

Dupuis J, Langenberg C, Prokopenko I, Saxena R, Soranzo N, Jackson AU, Wheeler E, Glazer NL et al. 2010. New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk (vol 42, pg 105, 2010) NATURE GENETICS, 42 (5), pp. 464-464. | Read more

Manolopoulos KN, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2010. Response to Janiszewski et al. Int J Obes (Lond), 34 (6), pp. 1101-1101. | Read more

Lindgren CM, Heid IM, Randall JC, Lamina C, Steinthorsdottir V, Qi L, Speliotes EK, Thorleifsson G et al. 2010. Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution PLOS GENETICS, 6 (4), | Read more

Manolopoulos KN, Karpe F. 2010. ADRB2 Arg16Gly polymorphism in the LARGE trial. Lancet, 375 (9716), pp. 724-725. | Read more

Frayn KN, Hodson L, Karpe F. 2010. Dietary fat and insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia, 53 (5), pp. 799-801. | Read more

Dupuis J, Langenberg C, Prokopenko I, Saxena R, Soranzo N, Jackson AU, Wheeler E, Glazer NL et al. 2010. New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk. Nat Genet, 42 (2), pp. 105-116. | Show Abstract | Read more

Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.

Manolopoulos KN, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2010. Gluteofemoral body fat as a determinant of metabolic health. Int J Obes (Lond), 34 (6), pp. 949-959. | Show Abstract | Read more

Body fat distribution is an important metabolic and cardiovascular risk factor, because the proportion of abdominal to gluteofemoral body fat correlates with obesity-associated diseases and mortality. Here, we review the evidence and possible mechanisms that support a specific protective role of gluteofemoral body fat. Population studies show that an increased gluteofemoral fat mass is independently associated with a protective lipid and glucose profile, as well as a decrease in cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Studies of adipose tissue physiology in vitro and in vivo confirm distinct properties of the gluteofemoral fat depot with regards to lipolysis and fatty acid uptake: in day-to-day metabolism it appears to be more passive than the abdominal depot and it exerts its protective properties by long-term fatty acid storage. Further, a beneficial adipokine profile is associated with gluteofemoral fat. Leptin and adiponectin levels are positively associated with gluteofemoral fat while the level of inflammatory cytokines is negatively associated. Finally, loss of gluteofemoral fat, as observed in Cushing's syndrome and lipodystrophy is associated with an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. This underlines gluteofemoral fat's role as a determinant of health by the long-term entrapment of excess fatty acids, thus protecting from the adverse effects associated with ectopic fat deposition.

McQuaid SE, Manolopoulos KN, Dennis AL, Cheeseman J, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2010. Development of an arterio-venous difference method to study the metabolic physiology of the femoral adipose tissue depot. Obesity (Silver Spring), 18 (5), pp. 1055-1058. | Show Abstract | Read more

Gluteofemoral adipose tissue (AT) has interesting positive associations with metabolic health, yet little is known of its metabolic physiology. Here, we describe a technique for cannulation of a vein draining the femoral fat depot. Using ultrasound guidance, a cannula was introduced into a superficial branch of the great saphenous vein. We also obtained arterialized blood and, for comparison, blood representing drainage from forearm muscle and from subcutaneous abdominal AT. We measured appropriate biomarkers of skeletal muscle (creatinine) and AT (nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glycerol, leptin) drainage. Blood obtained in this way from the saphenous vein did not show creatinine release (creatinine concentration 100.5 +/- 0.4%, mean +/- s.e.m., of that in arterialized blood), whereas creatinine concentrations in blood draining forearm muscle averaged 121 +/- 1% of those in arterialized blood. Fatty acid release from the tissue drained was suppressed after feeding and increased during beta-adrenergic stimulation. We also demonstrated leptin secretion. These findings suggest that blood so obtained is representative of AT drainage with little apparent contribution of skeletal muscle. We believe this technique will facilitate physiological studies of a lower-body fat depot in humans.

Watts GF, Karpe F. 2010. More than meets the eye: the ACCORD trial and use of statin-fibrate combination in type 2 diabetes mellitus Practical Diabetes International, 27 (8), pp. 326-328. | Read more

Dupuis J, Langenberg C, Prokopenko I, Saxena R, Soranzo N, Jackson AU, Wheeler E, Glazer NL et al. 2010. Erratum: New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk Nature Genetics, 42 (5), pp. 464-464. | Read more

Cited:

1264

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Speliotes EK, Willer CJ, Berndt SI, Monda KL, Thorleifsson G, Jackson AU, Allen HL, Lindgren CM et al. 2010. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index NATURE GENETICS, 42 (11), pp. 937-U53. | Show Abstract | Read more

Obesity is globaLy prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined aSociations betwEn body maS index and ĝ̂1/42.8 miLion SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted foLow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 aDitional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci aSociated with body maS index (P < 5-10-8), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly aSociated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ahmed M, Neville MJ, Edelmann MJ, Kessler BM, Karpe F. 2010. Proteomic analysis of human adipose tissue after rosiglitazone treatment shows coordinated changes to promote glucose uptake. Obesity (Silver Spring), 18 (1), pp. 27-34. | Show Abstract | Read more

The aim of this study was to identify potential protein targets for insulin sensitization in human adipose tissue using unbiased proteomic approaches. Ten moderately obese, but otherwise healthy, subjects were treated with rosiglitazone 4 mg b.i.d. for 14 days and global protein and gene expression changes were monitored. Proteomic analysis revealed distinct up- or downregulation (greater than twofold) in 187 protein spots on the two-dimensional (2-D) gel images between day 0 and day 1 adipose tissue samples. When comparing the protein spots on the gels from day 0 with that of 14-day-treated samples, 122 spots showed differential expression. There was a striking increase in the expression of proteins involved in glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) granule transport and fusion (actin, myosin-9, tubulin, vimentin, annexins, moesin, LIM, and SH3 domain protein-1), signaling (calmodulin, guanine nucleotide-binding proteins), redox regulation (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferritin, transferrin, heat shock proteins), and adipogenesis (collagens, galectin-1, nidogen-1, laminin, lamin A/C). However, there was an intriguing absence of correlated changes in mRNA expression, suggesting adaptation at a post-transcriptional level in response to rosiglitazone. Thus, the major changes observed were among proteins involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement, insulin and calcium signaling, and inflammatory and redox signals that decisively upregulate GLUT4 granule trafficking in human adipose tissue. Such orchestrated changes in expression of multiple proteins provide insights into the mechanism underlying the increased efficiency in glucose uptake and improvement of insulin sensitivity in response to rosiglitazone treatment.

Schwenk JM, Igel U, Kato BS, Nicholson G, Karpe F, Uhlén M, Nilsson P. 2010. Comparative protein profiling of serum and plasma using an antibody suspension bead array approach. Proteomics, 10 (3), pp. 532-540. | Show Abstract | Read more

In the pursuit towards a systematic analysis of human diseases, array-based approaches within antibody proteomics offer high-throughput strategies to discover protein biomarkers in serum and plasma. To investigate the influence of sample preparation on such discovery attempts, we report on a systematic effort to compare serum and plasma protein profiles determined with an antibody suspension bead array. The intensity levels were used to define protein profiles and no significant differences between serum and plasma were observed for 79% of the 174 antibodies (targeting 156 proteins). By excluding 36 antibodies giving rise to differential intensity levels, cluster analysis revealed donor-specific rather than preparation-dependent grouping. With a cohort from a clinically relevant medical condition, the metabolic syndrome, the influence of the sample type on a multiplexed biomarker discovery approach was further investigated. Independent comparisons of protein profiles in serum and plasma revealed an antibody targeting ADAMTSL-4, a protein that would qualify to be studied further in association with the condition. In general, the preparation type had an impact on the results of the applied antibody suspension bead array, and while the technical variability was equal, plasma offered a greater biological variability and allowed to give rise to more discoveries than serum.

Andersson J, Sjöström LG, Karlsson M, Wiklund U, Hultin M, Karpe F, Olsson T. 2010. Dysregulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in overweight postmenopausal women. Menopause, 17 (2), pp. 365-371. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: A putative link between abdominal obesity and metabolic-vascular complications after menopause may be due to a decreased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF). The present work aimed to analyze possible changes in ATBF with being overweight and menopausal and its putative link to endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous system balance. METHODS: Forty-three healthy women were classified into four groups according to weight and menopause status. The ATBF was measured by xenon washout while fasting and after oral glucose intake. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine was used as a marker of endothelial function and heart rate variability-estimated autonomic nervous system activity. RESULTS: Fasting ATBF was decreased in both overweight groups (P = 0.044 and P = 0.048) versus normal-weight premenopausal women. Normal-weight and overweight postmenopausal women exhibited lower maximum ATBF compared with normal-weight premenopausal women (P = 0.015 and P = 0.001, respectively), and overweight postmenopausal women exhibited lower maximum ATBF compared with normal-weight postmenopausal women (P = 0.003). A negative correlation was found between fasting ATBF and asymmetric dimethylarginine (P = 0.015), whereas maximum ATBF was negatively associated with sympathetic-parasympathetic nervous system balance (ratio of the power of the low frequency to the power of the high frequency; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Loss of ATBF flexibility in overweight postmenopausal women may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction seen in this group of women.

Christodoulides C, Dyson P, Sprecher D, Tsintzas K, Karpe F. 2009. Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists but not ketosis in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 94 (9), pp. 3594-3601. | Show Abstract | Read more

CONTEXT: Murine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is a nutritionally regulated hormone secreted by the liver principally in response to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha) activation, which plays a critical role in regulating metabolism during ketosis. FGF21 is also a PPAR gamma target gene in mouse adipose tissue. Little information is available on FGF21 functions in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to measure plasma FGF21 during fasting, ketogenic diet, and PPAR agonist treatment in humans. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective study involving three patient groups at two university hospitals. PATIENTS: Eight healthy male volunteers underwent a 48-h period of starvation followed by 24-h refeeding (group 1); seven obese individuals were allocated to a low-carbohydrate diet for 3 months (group 2); and three groups of healthy, overweight or obese male volunteers received treatment with a PPAR alpha (20 microg/d GW590735) (n=6), PPAR delta (10 mg/d GW501516) (n=6), or PPAR gamma agonist (rosiglitazone) (n=10) for 2 wk (group 3). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fasting plasma FGF21 and serum 3-hydroxybutyrate were measured. RESULTS: There was no significant variation in human plasma FGF21 during fasting and refeeding. A 3-month ketogenic diet was associated with a 42% decline in plasma FGF21 levels. Circulating FGF21 increased significantly in response to treatment with PPAR alpha (39%) and PPAR delta (32%), but not PPAR gamma agonists. CONCLUSION: FGF21 does not play a major role in regulating the fasting response or ketosis in man. However, plasma FGF21 is elevated in response to pharmacological activation of PPAR alpha and PPAR delta and may contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects observed in response to pharmacotherapy with these compounds.

Karpe F, Ehrenborg EE. 2009. PPARdelta in humans: genetic and pharmacological evidence for a significant metabolic function. Curr Opin Lipidol, 20 (4), pp. 333-336. | Show Abstract | Read more

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abundant data in rodents suggest an important role for peroxisomal proliferators-activated receptor-delta (PPARdelta) in regulating skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and this has consequences for lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Considerably less is known in humans and this review will focus on evidence derived from studies of the PPARD gene and pharmacological use of specific PPARdelta agonists. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic association studies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the PPARD gene have only provided negative or conflicting evidence for gross phenotypes such as obesity, hyperlipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. This does not exclude more subtle effects in skeletal muscle metabolic function, but studies of this type need replication. A couple of recent studies using the specific PPARdelta agonist GW501516 suggest potent hypolipidaemic actions, presumably caused by enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. SUMMARY: Considering the hypolipidaemic effect in humans by PPARdelta agonists, long-term studies are needed to confirm efficacy and safety.

Lindgren CM, Heid IM, Randall JC, Lamina C, Steinthorsdottir V, Qi L, Speliotes EK, Thorleifsson G et al. 2009. Erratum. PLoS Genet, 5 (7), | Show Abstract | Read more

[This corrects the article on p. e1000508 in vol. 5, PMID: 19557161.].

Lindgren CM, Heid IM, Randall JC, Lamina C, Steinthorsdottir V, Qi L, Speliotes EK, Thorleifsson G et al. 2009. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three Loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution. PLoS Genet, 5 (6), pp. e1000508. | Show Abstract | Read more

To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9x10(-11)) and MSRA (WC, P = 8.9x10(-9)). A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.6x10(-8)). The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity.

Perez-Matute P, Neville MJ, Tan GD, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2009. Transcriptional Control of Human Adipose Tissue Blood Flow (vol 17, pg 681, 2009) OBESITY, 17 (6), pp. 1306-1306. | Read more

Madani R, Karastergiou K, Ogston NC, Miheisi N, Bhome R, Haloob N, Tan GD, Karpe F et al. 2009. RANTES release by human adipose tissue in vivo and evidence for depot-specific differences. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 296 (6), pp. E1262-E1268. | Show Abstract | Read more

Obesity is associated with elevated inflammatory signals from various adipose tissue depots. This study aimed to evaluate release of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) by human adipose tissue in vivo and ex vivo, in reference to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release. Arteriovenous differences of RANTES, MCP-1, and IL-6 were studied in vivo across the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy Caucasian subjects with a wide range of adiposity. Systemic levels and ex vivo RANTES release were studied in abdominal subcutaneous, gastric fat pad, and omental adipose tissue from morbidly obese bariatric surgery patients and in thoracic subcutaneous and epicardial adipose tissue from cardiac surgery patients without coronary artery disease. Arteriovenous studies confirmed in vivo RANTES and IL-6 release in adipose tissue of lean and obese subjects and release of MCP-1 in obesity. However, in vivo release of MCP-1 and RANTES, but not IL-6, was lower than circulating levels. Ex vivo release of RANTES was greater from the gastric fat pad compared with omental (P = 0.01) and subcutaneous (P = 0.001) tissue. Epicardial adipose tissue released less RANTES than thoracic subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean (P = 0.04) but not obese subjects. Indexes of obesity correlated with epicardial RANTES but not with systemic RANTES or its release from other depots. In conclusion, RANTES is released by human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo and in varying amounts by other depots ex vivo. While it appears unlikely that the adipose organ contributes significantly to circulating levels, local implications of this chemokine deserve further investigation.

Ruge T, Hodson L, Cheeseman J, Dennis AL, Fielding BA, Humphreys SM, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2009. Fasted to fed trafficking of Fatty acids in human adipose tissue reveals a novel regulatory step for enhanced fat storage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 94 (5), pp. 1781-1788. | Show Abstract | Read more

CONTEXT: Absence or excess of adipose tissue are both associated with metabolic complications, implying the importance of well-functioning adipose tissue present in normal amounts. Adipose tissue sequesters dietary fat and thus protects other tissues from excess fat exposure, especially after meals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was the use of an integrative physiological technique to quantify trafficking of fatty acids (FAs) in adipose tissue over a 24 h period. METHODS: Adipose tissue FA handling was studied in response to three meals in eight healthy men by the combination of arteriovenous blood sampling, tissue blood flow, and specific labeling of FA tracing of exogenous and endogenous fat by stable isotope methodology. RESULTS: The efficiency of adipose tissue FA uptake increased robustly with each meal. Chylomicron-triglyceride was the dominating source of FA. Adipose tissue fractional extraction of chylomicron-triglyceride increased from 21 +/- 4 to 47 +/- 8% (P = 0.03) between the first and last meal. Although adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase action increased with time (2-fold), there was an even greater increase in FA reesterification (3-fold), which led to a reduced spillover of chylomicron-derived FA, from 77 +/- 15 to 34 +/- 7% (P = 0.04) comparing the end of the first and the third meal period. Increased uptake of very low-density lipoprotein-derived FA was observed, but spillover of very low-density lipoprotein-derived FA was seen only in the fasting state. CONCLUSION: Human adipose tissue has a significant potential to up-regulate fat storage during a normal day that goes beyond increased lipoprotein lipase activation. The adaptation toward increasing fat storage may provide an explanation for the beneficial properties of normal amounts of adipose tissue.

Perez-Matute P, Neville MJ, Tan GD, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2009. Transcriptional control of human adipose tissue blood flow. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17 (4), pp. 681-688. | Show Abstract | Read more

Adipose tissue is highly vascularized and expresses several genes involved in vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive regulation. We took a transcriptional approach to study the relationships between adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) and genes involved in vasoactive processes. As ATBF is impaired in obesity, we tested whether body weight interfered with the transcriptional regulation of ATBF. The mRNA content (real-time PCR) of 26 genes was quantified in subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from 28 healthy men with a wide range of BMI. ATBF was measured by 133Xe washout. None of the transcripts was related to fasting ATBF (ATBFF). However, the expression levels of two transcripts involved in vasodilation (natriuretic peptide receptor A/guanylate cyclase A (NPRA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)) were positively associated with postprandial ATBF (r = 0.53 and r = 0.55, P < 0.01, respectively). Although BMI was negatively related to the mRNA content of NPRA and eNOS (r = -0.78 and r = -0.63, P < 0.01, respectively), the strong associations found between postprandial ATBF and the two transcripts were not affected by obesity. Several genes were subject to coordinated regulation of expression. This study demonstrates for the first time that ATBF responsiveness to nutrient intake is related to the transcription of two genes expressed in adipose tissue and directly involved in vasodilatory actions (eNOS and NPRA), suggesting that part of the regulation of ATBF is at a transcriptional level. Interestingly, these associations were not secondary to changes in BMI. We also found that certain genes involved in the regulation of ATBF are subject to coordinate regulation of expression suggesting physiological autoregulation.

Perez-Matute P, Neville MJ, Tan GD, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2009. Corrigendum: Transcriptional Control of Human Adipose Tissue Blood Flow Obesity, 17 (6), pp. 1306-1306. | Read more

Funada J, Betts TR, Hodson L, Humphreys SM, Timperley J, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2009. Substrate utilization by the failing human heart by direct quantification using arterio-venous blood sampling. PLoS One, 4 (10), pp. e7533. | Show Abstract | Read more

Metabolic substrate utilization of the human failing heart is an area of controversy. The purpose of this study is to directly quantify myocardial substrate utilization in moderately severe heart failure, type 2 diabetes and healthy controls using simultaneous coronary sinus and arterial blood sampling. Patients with heart failure (n = 9, mean NYHA 2.7+/-0.5), with type 2 diabetes (n = 5) and with normal heart function (n = 10) were studied after an overnight fast in connection with electrophysiological investigations/treatments.A systemic infusion of [(2)H(2)]palmitate allowed for the calculation of absolute palmitate extraction across the heart. Blood samples were analysed for non-esterified fatty acids, triacylglycerol, glycerol, glucose, pyruvate, lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and blood gases after simultaneous sampling of arterial and coronary sinus blood. Arterio-coronary sinus metabolite concentration differences and fractional extractions for all substrates were similar between the groups. The absolute NEFA uptakes assessed by [(2)H(2)]palmitate extraction were also similar between the groups. Using direct measurements of metabolic substrate uptake by arterio-venous difference technique, the compensated human failing heart does not appear to have reduced myocardial fatty acid uptake.

Hodson L, McQuaid SE, Karpe F, Frayn KN, Fielding BA. 2009. Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 296 (1), pp. E64-E71. | Show Abstract | Read more

There has been much interest in the health effects of dietary fat, but few studies have comprehensively compared the acute metabolic fate of specific fatty acids in vivo. We hypothesized that different classes of fatty acids would be variably partitioned in metabolic pathways and that this would become evident over 24 h. We traced the fate of fatty acids using equal amounts of [U-(13)C]linoleate, [U-(13)C]oleate, and [U-(13)C]palmitate given in a test breakfast meal in 12 healthy subjects. There was a tendency for differences in the concentrations of the tracers in plasma chylomicron-triacylglycerol (TG) (oleate > palmitate > linoleate). This pattern remained in plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG (P <or= 0.01 and P <or= 0.02 for [U-(13)C]oleate vs. both [U-(13)C]palmitate and [U-(13)C]linoleate for NEFA and VLDL-TG, respectively). There was significantly more [U-(13)C]linoleate than the other two tracers in plasma cholesteryl ester and phospholipid (PL). Using the values for isotopic enrichment in the different lipid fractions compared with the test meal, we calculated the contribution of meal fatty acids to the respective fractions. At 24 h, 10% of plasma PL-linoleate originated from the breakfast test meal. This was significantly greater than for oleate and palmitate (both 3 +/- 0.3%; P < 0.05). This pattern was also true for erythrocyte PL fatty acids. The marked rapid incorporation of linoleate from a single meal into blood PL fractions may have functional consequences such as maintenance of membrane fluidity and may explain why linoleate is a useful biomarker of dietary intake.

Stimson RH, Andersson J, Andrew R, Redhead DN, Karpe F, Hayes PC, Olsson T, Walker BR. 2009. Cortisol release from adipose tissue by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in humans. Diabetes, 58 (1), pp. 46-53. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) regenerates cortisol from cortisone. 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity are increased in vitro in subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese patients. Inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 is a promising therapeutic approach in type 2 diabetes. However, release of cortisol by 11beta-HSD1 from adipose tissue and its effect on portal vein cortisol concentrations have not been quantified in vivo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Six healthy men underwent 9,11,12,12-[(2)H](4)-cortisol infusions with simultaneous sampling of arterialized and superficial epigastric vein blood sampling. Four men with stable chronic liver disease and a transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt in situ underwent tracer infusion with simultaneous sampling from the portal vein, hepatic vein, and an arterialized peripheral vein. RESULTS: Significant cortisol and 9,12,12-[(2)H](3)-cortisol release were observed from subcutaneous adipose tissue (15.0 [95% CI 0.4-29.5] and 8.7 [0.2-17.2] pmol . min(-1) . 100 g(-1) adipose tissue, respectively). Splanchnic release of cortisol and 9,12,12-[(2)H](3)-cortisol (13.5 [3.6-23.5] and 8.0 [2.6-13.5] nmol/min, respectively) was accounted for entirely by the liver; release of cortisol from visceral tissues into portal vein was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Cortisol is released from subcutaneous adipose tissue by 11beta-HSD1 in humans, and increased enzyme expression in obesity is likely to increase local glucocorticoid signaling and contribute to whole-body cortisol regeneration. However, visceral adipose 11beta-HSD1 activity is insufficient to increase portal vein cortisol concentrations and hence to influence intrahepatic glucocorticoid signaling.

Savage DB, Zhai L, Ravikumar B, Choi CS, Snaar JE, McGuire AC, Wou S-E, Medina-Gomez G et al. 2008. A Prevalent Variant in PPP1R3A Impairs Glycogen Synthesis and Reduces Muscle Glycogen Content in Humans and Mice (vol 5, pg e27, 2008) PLOS MEDICINE, 5 (12), pp. 1776-1776. | Read more

Tan GD, Savage DB, Fielding BA, Collins J, Hodson L, Humphreys SM, O'Rahilly S, Chatterjee K, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2008. Fatty acid metabolism in patients with PPARgamma mutations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 93 (11), pp. 4462-4470. | Show Abstract | Read more

CONTEXT: PPARG mutations may cause insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, but little is known about the mechanisms of the abnormalities of lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that in PPARG mutations, abnormal adipose tissue triglyceride storage causes insulin resistance. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whole-body and adipose tissue-specific metabolic phenotyping through arteriovenous blood sampling was made before and after a mixed meal including 13C-palmitic acid. Studies were performed in a 32-yr-old male with partial lipodystrophy and type 2 diabetes, heterozygous for the PPARG P467L mutation and in an apparently phenotypically normal 32-yr-old male heterozygous for the PPARG n.AAA553T mutation. Comparator groups were age- and sex-matched healthy participants (n=10) and type 2 diabetes sex-matched participants (n=6). RESULTS: The P467L patient had elevated unmodulated fasting and postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, despite a low adipose tissue NEFA output. Instead, NEFA appeared to originate directly from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins: 13C-palmitic acid accumulated rapidly in the NEFA fraction, as a sign of impaired fatty acid trapping in tissues. In contrast to the Pparg haploinsufficient mouse, the patient with n.AAA553T mutation did not exhibit paradoxically insulin sensitive and showed a mostly normal metabolic pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The lipodystrophic PPARG P467L phenotype include excessive and uncontrolled generation of NEFA directly from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, explaining high systemic NEFA concentrations, whereas the human PPARG haploinsufficiency is metabolically almost normal.

Bickerton AS, Roberts R, Fielding BA, Tornqvist H, Blaak EE, Wagenmakers AJ, Gilbert M, Humphreys SM, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2008. Adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in insulin-resistant men. Diabetologia, 51 (8), pp. 1466-1474. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increased NEFA production and concentrations may underlie insulin resistance. We examined systemic and adipose tissue NEFA metabolism in insulin-resistant overweight men (BMI 25-35 kg/m2). METHODS: In a cohort study we examined NEFA concentrations in men in the upper quartile of fasting insulin (n = 124) and in men with fasting insulin below the median (n = 159). In a metabolic study we examined NEFA metabolism in the fasting and postprandial states, in ten insulin-resistant men and ten controls. RESULTS: In the cohort study, fasting NEFA concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups (median values: insulin-resistant men, 410 micromol/l; controls, 445 micromol/l). However, triacylglycerol concentrations differed markedly (1.84 vs 1.18 mmol/l respectively, p < 0.001). In the metabolic study, arterial NEFA concentrations again did not differ between groups, whereas triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly higher in insulin-resistant men. Systemic NEFA production and the release of NEFA from subcutaneous adipose tissue, expressed per unit of fat mass, were both reduced in insulin-resistant men compared with controls (fasting values by 32%, p = 0.02, and 44%, p = 0.04 respectively). 3-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations, an index of hepatic fat oxidation and ketogenesis, were lower (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adipose tissue NEFA output is not increased (per unit weight of tissue) in insulin resistance. On the contrary, it appears to be suppressed by high fasting insulin concentrations. Alterations in triacylglycerol metabolism are more marked than those in NEFA metabolism and are indicative of altered metabolic partitioning of fatty acids (decreased oxidation, increased esterification) in the liver.

Karpe F, Hodson L. 2008. Caution on the interpretation of plasma fatty acid composition as a proxy marker for SCD1 activity: particular implications for using the 16:1/16:0 ratio in QTL studies involving hyperlipidemic patients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 28 (8), pp. e152. | Read more

Barber TM, Bennett AJ, Groves CJ, Sovio U, Ruokonen A, Martikainen H, Pouta A, Hartikainen AL et al. 2008. Association of variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene with polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetologia, 51 (7), pp. 1153-1158. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Variants in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) influence susceptibility to type 2 diabetes via an effect on adiposity/obesity. Given the important role of obesity in the aetiology of both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, our aim was to establish whether FTO variants are also implicated in PCOS susceptibility. METHODS: We performed a genetic association study of FTO variant rs9939609 using case-control analyses, conducted in 463 PCOS patients (geometric mean BMI 27.5 kg/m(2)) and 1,336 female controls (geometric mean BMI 25.3 kg/m(2)) of UK British/Irish origin. We also sought evidence for associations between FTO variation and circulating testosterone levels in 324 UK PCOS patients and 1,000 women from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966. Outcome measures included FTO rs9939609 genotype frequencies by participant group and androgen measures (testosterone, free androgen index) by genotype. RESULTS: There was a significant association between FTO genotype and PCOS status in the UK case-control analysis, which was attenuated by adjustment for BMI (Cochran-Armitage test, odds ratio [per minor allele copy] 1.30 [95% CI 1.12, 1.51], p = 7.2 x 10(-4) [unadjusted], p = 2.9 x 10(-3) [adjusted]). This association was most evident in obese PCOS patients (PCOS patients below median BMI vs UK controls, p = 0.11; above median BMI vs controls, p = 2.9 x 10(-4)). No relationship between FTO genotype and androgen levels was seen. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We provide the first evidence that variants that predispose to common obesity also result in altered susceptibility to PCOS, confirming the mechanistic link between these conditions. The predominant effect of FTO variants on PCOS susceptibility is probably mediated through adiposity.

Loos RJ, Lindgren CM, Li S, Wheeler E, Zhao JH, Prokopenko I, Inouye M, Freathy RM et al. 2008. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity. Nat Genet, 40 (6), pp. 768-775. | Show Abstract | Read more

To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 x 10(-6)) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 x 10(-15)) and 5,988 children aged 7-11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 x 10(-8)). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 x 10(-11)). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 x 10(-4)). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits.

Freathy RM, Timpson NJ, Lawlor DA, Pouta A, Ben-Shlomo Y, Ruokonen A, Ebrahim S, Shields B et al. 2008. Common variation in the FTO gene alters diabetes-related metabolic traits to the extent expected given its effect on BMI. Diabetes, 57 (5), pp. 1419-1426. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Common variation in the FTO gene is associated with BMI and type 2 diabetes. Increased BMI is associated with diabetes risk factors, including raised insulin, glucose, and triglycerides. We aimed to test whether FTO genotype is associated with variation in these metabolic traits. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We tested the association between FTO genotype and 10 metabolic traits using data from 17,037 white European individuals. We compared the observed effect of FTO genotype on each trait to that expected given the FTO-BMI and BMI-trait associations. RESULTS: Each copy of the FTO rs9939609 A allele was associated with higher fasting insulin (0.039 SD [95% CI 0.013-0.064]; P = 0.003), glucose (0.024 [0.001-0.048]; P = 0.044), and triglycerides (0.028 [0.003-0.052]; P = 0.025) and lower HDL cholesterol (0.032 [0.008-0.057]; P = 0.009). There was no evidence of these associations when adjusting for BMI. Associations with fasting alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, LDL cholesterol, A1C, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were in the expected direction but did not reach P < 0.05. For all metabolic traits, effect sizes were consistent with those expected for the per allele change in BMI. FTO genotype was associated with a higher odds of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.17 [95% CI 1.10-1.25]; P = 3 x 10(-6)). CONCLUSIONS: FTO genotype is associated with metabolic traits to an extent entirely consistent with its effect on BMI. Sample sizes of >12,000 individuals were needed to detect associations at P < 0.05. Our findings highlight the importance of using appropriately powered studies to assess the effects of a known diabetes or obesity variant on secondary traits correlated with these conditions.

Barber TM, Casanueva FF, Karpe F, Lage M, Franks S, McCarthy MI, Wass JA. 2008. Ghrelin levels are suppressed and show a blunted response to oral glucose in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol, 158 (4), pp. 511-516. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Abnormal ghrelin regulation may influence the development of obesity-associated conditions including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to compare ghrelin regulation between PCOS cases and controls. DESIGN: We compared serum ghrelin (total) levels, fasting and 30-min post-oral (75 g) glucose load, between 50 PCOS cases and 28 female controls, including 22 body mass index (BMI)/fat mass-matched pairs. All subjects were of UK British/Irish origin. METHODS: Measurements included serum ghrelin (RIA technique (LINCO Research, St Charles MO, USA)), fat mass, serum testosterone, fasting serum insulin and plasma glucose levels. Insulin sensitivity was calculated as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2 IR). RESULTS: Fasting serum ghrelin levels were significantly lower in PCOS cases versus BMI/fat mass-matched controls (geometric mean (s.d. range), 1104 pg/ml (764-1595) vs 1756 pg/ml (1314-2347) respectively; P=2.3 x 10(-4)). Ghrelin suppression following oral glucose load was significantly blunted in PCOS cases versus BMI/fat mass-matched controls (geometric mean ghrelin suppression (s.d. range), 160 pg/ml (88-289) vs 424 pg/ml (220-818) respectively; P=2.0 x 10(-4)). Whole-group comparisons (50 PCOS cases versus 28 controls) adjusted for fat mass and age revealed similar results. In PCOS cases, there was a significant negative correlation between fasting serum ghrelin and HOMA2 IR (r(2)=-0.40, P=5.7 x 10(-3)). Following adjustment for HOMA2 IR, fat mass and age, comparisons between the whole groups of PCOS cases and controls revealed attenuated but significant differences in fasting serum ghrelin (P=1.3 x 10(-3)) and ghrelin suppression (P=1.8 x 10(-3)). CONCLUSIONS: In women with PCOS, serum ghrelin levels are suppressed, showing a negative relationship with HOMA2 IR and a blunted response to oral glucose.

Chong MF, Hodson L, Bickerton AS, Roberts R, Neville M, Karpe F, Frayn KN, Fielding BA. 2008. Parallel activation of de novo lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity after 3 d of high-carbohydrate feeding. Am J Clin Nutr, 87 (4), pp. 817-823. | Show Abstract

BACKGROUND: High-carbohydrate (HC) diets increase de novo lipogenesis (DNL), but effects on stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) are not so well studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate DNL and SCD in liver and adipose tissue by using fatty acid ratios after short-term dietary intervention. DESIGN: Eight subjects consumed isoenergetic 3-d HC (10% fat; 75% carbohydrates) or higher fat (HF; 40% fat; 45% carbohydrates) diets (sugar to starch ratio: 60:40 for both) in a crossover study. Blood was taken from an artery and a vein draining subcutaneous adipose tissue. DNL and SCD activity were investigated by using the ratios of 16:0 to 18:2n-6 and of 16:1n-7 to 16:0, respectively. A test meal, including [U-(13)C]palmitate was given to trace dietary fatty acid incorporation into VLDL-triacylglycerol (TG). The conversion of intravenously infused [(2)H(2)]palmitic acid to [(2)H(2)]palmitoleic acid in VLDL-TG was quantified as a specific marker of hepatic SCD activity. RESULTS: The VLDL-TG 16:0/18:2n-6 ratio, which reflects hepatic DNL, was greater after the HC diet than after the HF diet (P = 0.02). With the HC diet, increased plasma TG concentrations correlated with 16:0/18:2n-6 ratios (r = 0.76, P = 0.028). Plasma VLDL-TG and adipose venous nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) 16:1n-7/16:0 ratios were higher after the HC diet (fasting: P = 0.01 and P = 0.05, respectively; postprandial: P = 0.03 and P = 0.05, respectively). Changes in fasting VLDL-TG 16:0/18:2n-6 and 16:1n-7/16:0 ratios were associated (P = 0.06). The contribution of total fatty acids from splanchnic sources (including DNL) was higher after the HC diet (P = 0.02). Expression of lipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue was not significantly affected by diet. CONCLUSION: Parallel activation of DNL and SCD was found after a short period of HC feeding.

Roberts R, Bickerton AS, Fielding BA, Blaak EE, Wagenmakers AJ, Chong MF, Gilbert M, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2008. Reduced oxidation of dietary fat after a short term high-carbohydrate diet. Am J Clin Nutr, 87 (4), pp. 824-831. | Show Abstract

BACKGROUND: Short-term high-carbohydrate (HC) diets induce metabolic alterations, including hypertriacylglycerolemia, in both the fasting and postprandial states. The underlying tissue-specific alterations in fatty acid metabolism are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated alterations in exogenous and endogenous fatty acid metabolism by using stable isotope tracers to label meal triacylglycerol and plasma fatty acids. DESIGN: Eight healthy subjects consumed isocaloric diets containing a high percentage of energy from carbohydrates or a higher percentage of energy from fat for 3 d in a randomized crossover dietary intervention study. A test meal containing [U-13C] palmitate was combined with intravenous infusion of [2H2] palmitate to label plasma fatty acids and VLDL triacylglycerol. Blood and breath samples were taken before the meal and for 6 h postprandially. Blood samples were drawn from the femoral artery and from veins draining subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm muscle for monitoring of tissue-specific metabolic substrate partitioning. RESULTS: Systemic triacylglycerol concentrations were increased in both fasting (P = 0.02) and postprandial (P = 0.02) periods, and a greater amount of infused labeled fatty acid appeared in VLDL triacylglycerol after the HC diet than after the higher-fat diet (P = 0.05). Significantly less 13CO2 was exhaled after the HC diet (P = 0.04) and significantly less production of 13CO2 was seen across forearm muscle (P = 0.04). Systemic 3-hydroxybutyrate was significantly lower, postprandially, after the HC diet (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Metabolic alterations suggestive of repartitioning of fatty acids away from oxidation toward esterification in both liver and muscle occur in response to short-term adaptation to a HC diet.

Hofker M, Bernini F, von Eckardstein A, Freeman D, Heeren J, Karpe F, Kalopissis A, Kronenberg F et al. 2008. European Lipoprotein Club: Report of the 30th ELC annual conference, Tutzing, 3-6 September 2007. Atherosclerosis, 197 (1), pp. 471-479. | Read more

Frayn KN, Langin D, Karpe F. 2008. Fatty acid-induced mitochondrial uncoupling in adipocytes is not a promising target for treatment of insulin resistance unless adipocyte oxidative capacity is increased. Diabetologia, 51 (3), pp. 394-397. | Show Abstract | Read more

The release of fatty acids from white adipose tissue is regulated at several levels. We have examined the suggestion that fatty acid release might be diminished by upregulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in the adipocyte, through increasing mitochondrial uncoupling. The intrinsic oxidative capacity of white adipose tissue is low, and older studies suggest that there is little fatty acid oxidation in white adipocytes, human or rodent. We have examined data on fatty acid metabolism and O(2) consumption in human white adipose tissue in vivo, and conclude that increasing fatty acid oxidation within the oxidative capacity of the tissue would produce only small changes (a few percent) in fatty acid release. The major locus of control of fatty acid release beyond the stimulation of lipolysis is the pathway of fatty acid esterification, already probably targeted by the thiazolidinedione insulin-sensitising agents. An alternative approach would be to upregulate the mitochondrial capacity of the adipocyte. We review proof-of-concept studies in which the phenotype of the white adipocyte has been changed to resemble that of the brown adipocyte by expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1alpha. This increases oxidative capacity and also leads to fatty acid retention through upregulation of glycerol-3-phosphate production, and hence increased fatty acid re-esterification. We conclude that prevention or treatment of insulin resistance through alteration of adipocyte fatty acid handling will require more than a simple alteration of the activity of mitochondrial beta-oxidation within normal limits.

Barber TM, Golding SJ, Alvey C, Wass JA, Karpe F, Franks S, McCarthy MI. 2008. Global adiposity rather than abnormal regional fat distribution characterizes women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 93 (3), pp. 999-1004. | Show Abstract | Read more

CONTEXT: Obesity-related predisposition to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) could reflect overall adiposity and/or regional accumulation of abdominal visceral fat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare distributions of visceral, abdominal sc, and gluteofemoral sc adipose tissue in PCOS cases vs. control women. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Fat depot measurements from axial magnetic resonance imaging scans taken at anatomically predefined sites were compared between 22 body mass index (BMI)/fat mass-matched pairs of PCOS cases and controls; whole-group comparisons included 50 PCOS cases vs. 28 female controls. All subjects were of UK British/Irish origin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We measured cross-sectional areas of adipose tissue within visceral (mid-L4), abdominal (mid-L4) sc, and gluteofemoral (greater trochanteric and midfemoral) sc fat depots. Other measurements included fat mass, BMI, testosterone, SHBG, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (a measure of insulin sensitivity). Whole-group analyses were adjusted for fat mass and age. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in fat-depot measurements between BMI/fat mass-matched pairs of PCOS cases and controls: mid-L4 visceral (P=0.40), abdominal sc (P=0.22), gluteal sc (P=0.67), and midfemoral sc (P=0.37) depots. Whole-group comparisons gave similar results after adjustments for fat mass and age. Fasting serum insulin concentrations (P=0.03) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P=0.03) were significantly higher in the PCOS group than BMI/fat mass-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS cases and BMI/fat mass-matched control women are indistinguishable with respect to distribution of fat within visceral, abdominal sc, and gluteofemoral sc depots, despite significant differences in insulin resistance between these two groups.

Evans K, Burdge GC, Wootton SA, Collins JM, Clark ML, Tan GD, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2008. Tissue-specific stable isotope measurements of postprandial lipid metabolism in familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Atherosclerosis, 197 (1), pp. 164-170. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: The metabolic defects underlying familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCHL) are not clearly understood. We used stable isotope techniques combined with tissue-specific measurements in adipose tissue and forearm muscle to investigate fatty acid handling by these tissues in the fasting and postprandial states. RESULTS: Patients were insulin resistant as shown by higher glucose and insulin concentrations and lower muscle glucose extraction than controls. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were higher in patients. Adipose tissue TAG extraction was not lower in patients than controls, although TAG clearance was lower, probably representing saturation. Following a test meal, patients showed a greater increase in chylomicron-TAG concentrations. There were no differences between FCHL patients and controls in postprandial suppression of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations or postprandial NEFA release, but patients had greater trapping of exogenous fatty acids in adipose tissue. 3-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations were lower in patients indicative of decreased hepatic fatty acid oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: In this group of patients with FCHL, the major defect appeared to be overproduction of TAG by the liver due to decreased fatty acid oxidation, with fatty acids directed to TAG synthesis. We found no evidence of decreased lipoprotein lipase action or impaired fatty acid re-esterification in adipose tissue.

Bourlier V, Zakaroff-Girard A, Miranville A, De Barros S, Maumus M, Sengenes C, Galitzky J, Lafontan M, Karpe F, Frayn KN, Bouloumié A. 2008. Remodeling phenotype of human subcutaneous adipose tissue macrophages. Circulation, 117 (6), pp. 806-815. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) have become a focus of attention recently because they have been shown to accumulate with an increase in fat mass and to be involved in the genesis of insulin resistance in obese mice. However, the phenotype and functions of human ATMs are still to be defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study, performed on human subcutaneous AT, showed that ATMs from lean to overweight individuals are composed of distinct macrophage subsets based on the expression of several cell surface markers: CD45, CD14, CD31, CD44, HLA-DR, CD206, and CD16, as assessed by flow cytometry. ATMs isolated by an immunoselection protocol showed a mixed expression of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-23, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8, cyclooxygenase-2) and antiinflammatory (IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta, alternative macrophage activation-associated cc chemokine-1, cyclooxygenase-1) factors. Fat mass enlargement is associated with accumulation of the CD206+/CD16- macrophage subset that exhibits an M2 remodeling phenotype characterized by decreased expression of proinflammatory IL-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 and increased expression of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1. ATMs specifically produced and released matrix metalloproteinase-9 compared with adipocytes and capillary endothelial cells, and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 from human AT in vivo, assessed by arteriovenous difference measurement, was correlated with body mass index. Finally, ATMs exerted a marked proangiogenic effect on AT-derived endothelial and progenitor cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present results showed that the ATMs that accumulate with fat mass development exhibit a particular M2 remodeling phenotype. ATMs may be active players in the process of AT development through the extension of the capillary network and in the genesis of obesity-associated cardiovascular pathologies.

Risérus U, Sprecher D, Johnson T, Olson E, Hirschberg S, Liu A, Fang Z, Hegde P et al. 2008. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta promotes reversal of multiple metabolic abnormalities, reduces oxidative stress, and increases fatty acid oxidation in moderately obese men. Diabetes, 57 (2), pp. 332-339. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta agonists and transgenic overexpression of PPARdelta in mice suggest amelioration of features of the metabolic syndrome through enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize a similar mechanism operates in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The PPARdelta agonist (10 mg o.d. GW501516), a comparator PPARalpha agonist (20 mug o.d. GW590735), and placebo were given in a double-blind, randomized, three-parallel group, 2-week study to six healthy moderately overweight subjects in each group. Metabolic evaluation was made before and after treatment including liver fat quantification, fasting blood samples, a 6-h meal tolerance test with stable isotope fatty acids, skeletal muscle biopsy for gene expression, and urinary isoprostanes for global oxidative stress. RESULTS: Treatment with GW501516 showed statistically significant reductions in fasting plasma triglycerides (-30%), apolipoprotein B (-26%), LDL cholesterol (-23%), and insulin (-11%), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. A 20% reduction in liver fat content (P < 0.05) and 30% reduction in urinary isoprostanes (P = 0.01) were also observed. Except for a lowering of triglycerides (-30%, P < 0.05), none of these changes were observed in response to GW590735. The relative proportion of exhaled CO(2) directly originating from the fat content of the meal was increased (P < 0.05) in response to GW501516, and skeletal muscle expression of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1b (CPT1b) was also significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: The PPARdelta agonist GW501516 reverses multiple abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome without increasing oxidative stress. The effect is probably caused by increased fat oxidation in skeletal muscle.

van Harmelen V, Eriksson A, Aström G, Wåhlén K, Näslund E, Karpe F, Frayn K, Olsson T, Andersson J, Rydén M, Arner P. 2008. Vascular peptide endothelin-1 links fat accumulation with alterations of visceral adipocyte lipolysis. Diabetes, 57 (2), pp. 378-386. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Visceral obesity increases risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This may partly be due to a region-specific resistance to insulin's antilipolytic effect in visceral adipocytes. We investigated whether adipose tissue releases the vascular peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) and whether ET-1 could account for regional differences in lipolysis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One group consisted of eleven obese and eleven nonobese subjects in whom ET-1 levels were compared between abdominal subcutaneous and arterialized blood samples. A second group included subjects undergoing anti-obesity surgery. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were obtained to study the effect of ET-1 on differentiated adipocytes regarding lipolysis and gene and protein expression. RESULTS: Adipose tissue had a marked net release of ET-1 in vivo, which was 2.5-fold increased in obesity. In adipocytes treated with ET-1, the antilipolytic effect of insulin was attenuated in visceral but not in subcutaneous adipocytes, which could not be explained by effects of ET-1 on adipocyte differentiation. ET-1 decreased the expression of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphodiesterase-3B and increased the expression of endothelin receptor-B (ET(B)R) in visceral but not in subcutaneous adipocytes. These effects were mediated via ET(B)R with signals through protein kinase C and calmodulin pathways. The effect of ET-1 could be mimicked by knockdown of IRS-1. CONCLUSIONS: ET-1 is released from human adipose tissue and links fat accumulation to insulin resistance. It selectively counteracts insulin inhibition of visceral adipocyte lipolysis via ET(B)R signaling pathways, which affect multiple steps in insulin signaling.

Goossens GH, Karpe F. 2008. Human adipose tissue blood flow and micromanipulation of human subcutaneous blood flow Methods in Molecular Biology, 456 pp. 97-107. | Show Abstract | Read more

Regulation of blood flow in tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue is needed to meet the changing local metabolic and physiological demands under varying conditions. In healthy individuals, adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) is remarkably responsive to meal ingestion, but changes in ATBF in response to other physiological stimuli, such as stress and physical exercise, have also been noted. The ATBF response to nutrient intake may be of particular importance in the regulation of metabolism by facilitating transport of nutrients as well as signaling between adipose tissue and other metabolically active tissues. A reduction in both fasting and postprandial ATBF has been observed in obesity; this impairment is associated with insulin resistance. A better understanding of the physiological basis for (nutritional) regulation of ATBF may therefore give insight to the relationship between disturbances in ATBF and the metabolic disturbances observed in response to insulin resistance. In this chapter, we describe some different approaches to quantify human ATBF, with a particular emphasis on the <sup>133</sup>xenon wash-out technique and a method by which regulatory properties of subcutaneous ATBF can be studied by pharmacological micromanipulation (microinfusion). © 2008 Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Bickerton AST, Roberts R, Fielding BA, Tornqvist H, Blaak EE, Wagenmakers AJM, Gilbert M, Humphreys SM, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2008. Adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in insulin-resistant men Diabetologia, 51 (10), pp. 1936-1936. | Read more

Cheung AM, Tile L, Lee Y, Tomlinson G, Hawker G, Scher J, Hu H, Vieth R, Thompson L, Jamal S, Josse R. 2008. Correction: Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial PLoS Medicine, 5 (12), pp. e247-e247. | Read more

Savage DB, Zhai L, Ravikumar B, Cheol SC, Snaar JE, McGuire AC, Wou SE, Medina-Gomez G et al. 2008. A prevalent variant in PPP1R3A impairs glycogen synthesis and reduces muscle glycogen content in humans and mice PLoS Medicine, 5 (1), pp. 0113-0122. | Show Abstract | Read more

Background: Stored glycogen is an important source of energy for skeletal muscle. Human genetic disorders primarily affecting skeletal muscle glycogen turnover are well-recognised, but rare. We previously reported that a frameshift/premature stop mutation in PPP1R3A, the gene encoding RGL, a key regulator of muscle glycogen metabolism, was present in 1.36% of participants from a population of white individuals in the UK. However, the functional implications of the mutation were not known. The objective of this study was to characterise the molecular and physiological consequences of this genetic variant. Methods and Findings: In this study we found a similar prevalence of the variant in an independent UK white population of 744 participants (1.46%) and, using in vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, demonstrate that human carriers (n= 6) of the variant have low basal (65% lower, p = 0.002) and postprandial muscle glycogen levels. Mice engineered to express the equivalent mutation had similarly decreased muscle glycogen levels (40% lower in heterozygous knock-in mice, p < 0.05). In muscle tissue from these mice, failure of the truncated mutant to bind glycogen and colocalize with glycogen synthase (GS) decreased GS and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity states, which account for the decreased glycogen content. Conclusions: Thus, PPP1R3A C1984DAG (stop codon 668) is, to our knowledge, the first prevalent mutation described that directly impairs glycogen synthesis and decreases glycogen levels in human skeletal muscle. The fact that it is present in ∼1 in 70 UK whites increases the potential biomedical relevance of these observations. © 2008 Savage et al.

Savage DB, Zhai L, Ravikumar B, Choi CS, Snaar JE, McGuire AC, Wou SE, Medina-Gomez G et al. 2008. A prevalent variant in PPP1R3A impairs glycogen synthesis and reduces muscle glycogen content in humans and mice. PLoS Med, 5 (1), pp. e27. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Stored glycogen is an important source of energy for skeletal muscle. Human genetic disorders primarily affecting skeletal muscle glycogen turnover are well-recognised, but rare. We previously reported that a frameshift/premature stop mutation in PPP1R3A, the gene encoding RGL, a key regulator of muscle glycogen metabolism, was present in 1.36% of participants from a population of white individuals in the UK. However, the functional implications of the mutation were not known. The objective of this study was to characterise the molecular and physiological consequences of this genetic variant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study we found a similar prevalence of the variant in an independent UK white population of 744 participants (1.46%) and, using in vivo (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, demonstrate that human carriers (n = 6) of the variant have low basal (65% lower, p = 0.002) and postprandial muscle glycogen levels. Mice engineered to express the equivalent mutation had similarly decreased muscle glycogen levels (40% lower in heterozygous knock-in mice, p < 0.05). In muscle tissue from these mice, failure of the truncated mutant to bind glycogen and colocalize with glycogen synthase (GS) decreased GS and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity states, which account for the decreased glycogen content. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, PPP1R3A C1984DeltaAG (stop codon 668) is, to our knowledge, the first prevalent mutation described that directly impairs glycogen synthesis and decreases glycogen levels in human skeletal muscle. The fact that it is present in approximately 1 in 70 UK whites increases the potential biomedical relevance of these observations.

Goossens GH, Karpe F. 2008. Human adipose tissue blood flow and micromanipulation of human subcutaneous blood flow. Methods Mol Biol, 456 pp. 97-107. | Show Abstract | Read more

Regulation of blood flow in tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue is needed to meet the changing local metabolic and physiological demands under varying conditions. In healthy individuals, adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) is remarkably responsive to meal ingestion, but changes in ATBF in response to other physiological stimuli, such as stress and physical exercise, have also been noted. The ATBF response to nutrient intake may be of particular importance in the regulation of metabolism by facilitating transport of nutrients as well as signaling between adipose tissue and other metabolically active tissues. A reduction in both fasting and postprandial ATBF has been observed in obesity; this impairment is associated with insulin resistance. A better understanding of the physiological basis for (nutritional) regulation of ATBF may therefore give insight to the relationship between disturbances in ATBF and the metabolic disturbances observed in response to insulin resistance. In this chapter, we describe some different approaches to quantify human ATBF, with a particular emphasis on the 133xenon wash-out technique and a method by which regulatory properties of subcutaneous ATBF can be studied by pharmacological micromanipulation (microinfusion).

Frayn KN, Tan GD, Karpe F. 2007. Adipose tissue: a key target for diabetes pathophysiology and treatment? Horm Metab Res, 39 (10), pp. 739-742. | Show Abstract | Read more

Excess adipose tissue brings with it a number of adverse consequences, many of which may stem from the development of insulin resistance. An emerging view is that inflammatory changes occurring in expanding adipose tissue are associated with the secretion of peptide and other factors that can adversely affect metabolic processes in other key insulin-target tissues, especially liver and skeletal muscle. However, there is still a commonly-expressed view that the adverse changes in other tissues are ultimately due to an excess of fatty acids, liberated by a metabolically-challenged adipose tissue. Our own studies of adipose tissue metabolism and physiological function (especially blood flow) IN VIVO suggest that these two views of adipose tissue function may be closely linked. Enlarged adipocytes are less dynamic in their responses, just as 'enlarged adipose tissue' is less dynamic in blood flow regulation. Adipocytes seem to be able to sense the appropriate level of fat storage. If the normal mechanisms regulating adipocyte fat storage are interfered with (either in genetically-modified animals or by increasing the size of the adipocytes), then perhaps some sort of cellular stress sets in, leading to the inflammatory and endocrine changes. Some evidence for this comes from the effects of the thiazolidinediones, which improve adipose tissue function and in parallel reduce inflammatory changes.

Hofker M, Calabresi L, von Eckardstein A, Heeren J, Karpe F, Kalopissis A, Kronenberg F, Kuipers F et al. 2007. European Lipoprotein Club: Report of the 29th ELC Annual Conference, Tutzing, 4-7 September 2006. Atherosclerosis, 193 (2), pp. 461-468. | Read more

Hodson L, Bickerton AS, McQuaid SE, Roberts R, Karpe F, Frayn KN, Fielding BA. 2007. The contribution of splanchnic fat to VLDL triglyceride is greater in insulin-resistant than insulin-sensitive men and women: studies in the postprandial state. Diabetes, 56 (10), pp. 2433-2441. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine differences in the postprandial contributions of different fatty acid sources to VLDL triglycerides (TGs) in healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Insulin-resistant (n = 11) and insulin-sensitive (n = 11) men and women (n = 6) were given an intravenous infusion of [(2)H(2)]palmitic acid to investigate systemic nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) incorporation into VLDL TGs. Participants were also fed a mixed meal containing [U-(13)C]palmitic acid to investigate the contribution of dietary fatty acids to VLDL TG production. Blood samples were taken over the following 6 h. Separation of VLDL was performed by density gradient ultracentrifugation and immunoaffinity techniques specific to apolipoprotein B-100. RESULTS: Insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive men had similar postprandial chylomicron and chylomicron remnant TG concentrations, but insulin-resistant men had higher postprandial VLDL TG concentrations (median [range]; area under the curve 485 micromol/l [123-992] vs. 287 micromol/l [162-510]; P < 0.05). At 360 min, most of the difference in VLDL TGs was accounted for by an additional contribution from splanchnic fat (means +/- SE; 331 +/- 76 micromol/l vs. 89 +/- 25 micromol/l; P < 0.01). The contribution of fatty acids from endogenous systemic NEFAs was similar across the groups, as were dietary fatty acids. There was no difference in the VLDL TG concentration or the contribution of different fatty acid sources between insulin-sensitive men and women. CONCLUSIONS: In the postprandial period, the only sources of fatty acids for VLDL TG production to differ in the insulin-resistant compared with the insulin-sensitive men are those derived from splanchnic sources.

Frayling TM, Timpson NJ, Weedon MN, Zeggini E, Freathy RM, Lindgren CM, Perry JR, Elliott KS et al. 2007. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science, 316 (5826), pp. 889-894. | Show Abstract | Read more

Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

Wake DJ, Stimson RH, Tan GD, Homer NZ, Andrew R, Karpe F, Walker BR. 2007. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and -gamma agonists on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 92 (5), pp. 1848-1856. | Show Abstract | Read more

CONTEXT: In animals, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and PPARgamma agonists down-regulate 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) mRNA and activity in liver and adipose tissue, respectively, and PPARgamma agonists reduce ACTH secretion from corticotrope cells. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test whether PPAR agonists alter cortisol secretion and peripheral regeneration by 11beta-HSD1 in humans and whether reduced cortisol action contributes to metabolic effects of PPARgamma agonists. DESIGN AND SETTING: Three randomized placebo-controlled crossover studies were conducted at a clinical research facility. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: Healthy men and patients with type 2 diabetes participated. INTERVENTIONS, OUTCOME MEASURES, AND RESULTS: In nine healthy men, 7 d of PPARalpha agonist (fenofibrate) or PPARgamma agonist (rosiglitazone) had no effect on cortisol secretion, hepatic cortisol generation after oral cortisone administration, or tracer kinetics during 9,11,12,12-[(2)H](4)-cortisol infusion, although rosiglitazone marginally reduced cortisol generation in sc adipose tissue measured by in vivo microdialysis. In 12 healthy men, 4-5 wk of rosiglitazone increased insulin sensitivity during insulin infusion but did not change 11beta-HSD1 mRNA or activity in sc adipose tissue, and insulin sensitization was unaffected by glucocorticoid blockade with a combination of metyrapone and RU38486. In 12 men with type 2 diabetes 12 wk of rosiglitazone reduced arteriovenous cortisone extraction across abdominal sc adipose tissue and reduced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA in sc adipose tissue but increased plasma cortisol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Neither PPARalpha nor PPARgamma agonists down-regulate 11beta-HSD1 or cortisol secretion acutely in humans. The early insulin-sensitizing effect of rosiglitazone is not dependent on reducing intracellular glucocorticoid concentrations. Reduced adipose 11beta-HSD1 expression and increased plasma cortisol during longer therapy with rosiglitazone probably reflect indirect effects, e.g. mediated by changes in body fat.

Cadoudal T, Blouin JM, Collinet M, Fouque F, Tan GD, Loizon E, Beale EG, Frayn KN et al. 2007. Acute and selective regulation of glyceroneogenesis and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in adipose tissue by thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 50 (3), pp. 666-675. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Regulation of glyceroneogenesis and its key enzyme cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) plays a major role in the control of fatty acid release from adipose tissue. Here we investigate the effect of rosiglitazone on the expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and the resulting metabolic consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rosiglitazone was administered to Zucker fa/fa rats for 4 days and to 24 diabetic patients for 12 weeks, then mRNA expression for the genes encoding PEPCK-C, mitochondrial PEPCK, adipocyte lipid-binding protein, glycerol kinase, lipoprotein lipase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was examined in s.c. adipose tissue by real-time RT-PCR. Glyceroneogenesis was determined using [1-(14)C]pyruvate incorporation into lipids. Cultured adipose tissue explants from overweight women undergoing plastic surgery were incubated with rosiglitazone for various times before mRNA determination and analysis of PEPCK-C protein, activity and glyceroneogenesis. RESULTS: Rosiglitazone administration to rats induced the expression of the gene encoding PEPCK-C mRNA (PCK1) and PEPCK-C activity in adipose tissue with a resulting 2.5-fold increase in glyceroneogenesis. This was accompanied by an improvement in dyslipidaemia as demonstrated by the decrease in plasma NEFAs and triacylglycerol. In rosiglitazone-treated diabetic patients, PCK1 mRNA was raised 2.5-fold in s.c. adipose tissue. Rosiglitazone treatment of adipose tissue explants from overweight women caused a selective augmentation in PCK1 mRNA which reached a maximum of 9-fold at 14 h, while mRNA for other genes remained unaffected. Experiments with inhibitors showed a direct and transcription-only effect, which was followed by an increase in PEPCK-C protein, enzyme activity and glyceroneogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results favour adipocyte glyceroneogenesis as the initial thiazolidinedione-responsive pathway leading to improvement in dyslipidaemia.

Heath RB, Karpe F, Milne RW, Burdge GC, Wootton SA, Frayn KN. 2007. Dietary fatty acids make a rapid and substantial contribution to VLDL-triacylglycerol in the fed state. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 292 (3), pp. E732-E739. | Show Abstract | Read more

Exaggerated postprandial lipemia is associated with coronary heart disease and type II diabetes, yet few studies have examined the effect of sequential meals on lipoprotein metabolism. We have used 13C-labeled fatty acids to trace the incorporation of fatty acid derived from a meal into apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100)-containing lipoproteins and plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) following two consecutive meals. Healthy volunteers (n=8) were given breakfast labeled with [1-(13)C]palmitic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, followed 5 h later by lunch containing [1-(13)C]oleic acid. Blood samples were taken over a 9-h period. ApoB-100-containing lipoproteins were isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography. Chylomicron-triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations peaked at 195 min following breakfast but at 75 min following lunch (P<0.001). VLDL-TG concentrations, in contrast, rose to a broad peak after breakfast and then fell steadily after lunch. Breakfast markers followed chylomicron-TG concentrations and appeared in plasma NEFA with a similar profile, whereas [1-(13)C]oleic acid peaked 2 h after lunch in plasma TG and NEFA. Breakfast markers appeared steadily in VLDL, peaking 1-3 h after lunch, whereas [1-(13)C]oleic acid was still accumulating in VLDL at 9 h. Around 17% of VLDL-TG originated from recent dietary fat 5 h after breakfast, and around 40% at the end of the experiment. We conclude that there is rapid flux of fatty acids from the diet into endogenous pools. Further study of these processes may open up new targets for intervention to reduce VLDL-TG concentrations and postprandial lipemia.

Neville MJ, Clarke R, Evans JG, Rubinsztein DC, Karpe F. 2007. Absence of relationship between MTTP haplotypes and longevity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 62 (2), pp. 202-205. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms for the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) gene have been associated with longevity and with lower risk for cardiovascular mortality. However, the association of MTTP with longevity has been contested in a large German collection of nonagenarians and centenarians. METHODS: We made a detailed characterization of MTTP haplotype carrier status in a cohort of 1398 old men and women (mean age 78 years) and a population-based cohort (n = 777) of younger controls (mean age 40 years) in Oxford, England. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in haplotypes for MTTP gene between the younger and older age groups. CONCLUSION: This study, which adopted a more detailed genetic analysis of the MTTP gene in a large case-control study of older people provides reliable evidence against any significant association of the MTTP gene with longevity.

Bickerton AS, Roberts R, Fielding BA, Hodson L, Blaak EE, Wagenmakers AJ, Gilbert M, Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2007. Preferential uptake of dietary Fatty acids in adipose tissue and muscle in the postprandial period. Diabetes, 56 (1), pp. 168-176. | Show Abstract | Read more

Despite consistent evidence that abnormalities of fatty acid delivery and storage underlie the metabolic defects of insulin resistance, physiological pathways by which fat is stored in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle are not clear. We used a combination of stable isotope labeling and arteriovenous difference measurements to elucidate pathways of postprandial fat deposition in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in healthy humans. A test meal containing [U-(13)C]palmitate was combined with intravenous infusion of [(2)H(2)]palmitate to label plasma fatty acids and VLDL-triglyceride. Both dietary (chylomicron) and VLDL-triglyceride were cleared across adipose tissue and muscle, though with greater fractional extraction of the chylomicron-triglyceride. In adipose tissue there was significant uptake of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in the postprandial but not the fasting state. However, this was minor in comparison with chylomicron-triglyceride fatty acids. We modeled the fate of fatty acids released by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). There was clear preferential uptake of these fatty acids compared with plasma NEFAs. In muscle, there was unexpected evidence for release of LPL-derived fatty acids into the plasma. With this integrative physiological approach, we have revealed hidden complexities in pathways of fatty acid uptake in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

Tahiri Y, Karpe F, Tan GD, Cianflone K. 2007. Rosiglitazone decreases postprandial production of acylation stimulating protein in type 2 diabetics. Nutr Metab (Lond), 4 (1), pp. 11. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: We evaluated plasma ASP and its precursor C3 in type 2 diabetic men with/without rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment compared to healthy non-obese men. We tested (1) whether plasma ASP or C3 are altered postprandially in subcutaneous adipose tissue or forearm muscle effluent assessed by arteriovenous (A-V) differences in healthy lean men and older obese diabetic men and (2) whether treatment with ROSI changes the arteriovenous gradient of ASP and/or C3. METHODS: In this ongoing placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blinded study, AV differences following a mixed meal were measured in diabetic men (n = 6) as compared to healthy men (n = 9). RESULTS: Postprandial arterial and adipose venous TG and venous NEFA were increased in diabetics vs. controls (p < 0.05-0.0001). ROSI treatment decreased postprandial arterial TG (p < 0.001), adipose venous NEFA (p < 0.005), reduced postprandial glucose (p < 0.0001) and insulin concentrations (p < 0.006). In healthy men, there was no change in postprandial C3, but an increase in adipose venous ASP vs. arterial ASP (p < 0.02), suggesting ASP production, with no change in forearm muscle. In older, obese diabetic subjects, arterial C3 was greater than in controls (p < 0.001). Arterial C3 was greater than venous C3 (p < 0.05), an effect that was lost with ROSI treatment. In diabetics, postprandial venous ASP was greater than arterial (p < 0.05), indicating ASP production, an effect that was lost with ROSI treatment (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Increased postprandial venous production of ASP is specific for adipose tissue (absent in forearm muscle). Increased postprandial C3 and ASP in diabetic subjects is consistent with an ASP resistant state, this state is partially normalized by treatment with ROSI.

Tan GD, Olivecrona G, Vidal H, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2006. Insulin sensitisation affects lipoprotein lipase transport in type 2 diabetes: role of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in response to rosiglitazone. Diabetologia, 49 (10), pp. 2412-2418. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is produced by adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, but acts on plasma lipoproteins after being transported to endothelial binding sites. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased plasma LPL mass. We investigated the effects of insulin sensitisation on tissue-specific LPL expression and transport in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Arterio-venous gradients of plasma LPL activity and mass across adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were measured in 16 type 2 diabetic patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over randomised trial of rosiglitazone. In vivo LPL rate of action was assessed by tissue-specific arterio-venous triglyceride concentration gradients. LPL mRNA was quantified in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies. RESULTS: Adipose tissue released large quantities of inactive LPL (p<0.001); skeletal muscle released small amounts of active LPL (p<0.01). Rosiglitazone increased adipose tissue release of LPL mass (+35%, p=0.04) and decreased the release of active LPL from skeletal muscle (-57%, p=0.03). Rosiglitazone increased adipose tissue and skeletal muscle LPL mRNA, but did not affect adipose tissue LPL rate of action or activity. Adipose tissue release of LPL mass correlated with systemic LPL mass concentrations (r=0.47, p=0.007), suggesting that the rate of adipose tissue release of LPL mass is a major determinant of systemic LPL mass concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: LPL transport from adipose tissue and skeletal muscle are regulated differently. In adipose tissue, rosiglitazone increases LPL mRNA abundance and LPL transport rate and possibly increases endothelial binding sites for LPL, but affects neither tissue LPL activity nor LPL rate of action.

Lundahl B, Skoglund-Andersson C, Caslake M, Bedford D, Stewart P, Hamsten A, Packard CJ, Karpe F. 2006. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein -493T variant reduces IDL plus LDL apoB production and the plasma concentration of large LDL particles. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 290 (4), pp. E739-E745. | Show Abstract | Read more

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins. We investigated the role the MTP -493G/T gene polymorphism in determining the apoB-100 secretion pattern and LDL heterogeneity in healthy human subjects. Groups of carriers of the T and the G variants (n = 6 each) were recruited from a cohort of healthy 50-yr-old men. Kinetic studies were performed by endogenous [(2)H(3)]leucine labeling of apoB and subsequent quantification of the stable isotope incorporation. apoB production rates, metabolic conversions, and eliminations were calculated by multicompartmental modeling (SAAM-II). LDL subfraction distribution was analyzed in the entire cohort (n = 377). Carriers of the MTP -493T allele had lower plasma LDL apoB and lower concentration of large LDL particles [LDL-I: 136 +/- 57 (TT) vs. 175 +/- 55 (GG) mg/l, P < 0.01]. Kinetic modeling suggested that MTP -493T homozygotes had a 60% lower direct production rate of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) plus LDL compared with homozygotes for the G allele (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in production rates of large and small VLDL, nor were there any differences in metabolic conversion or elimination rates of apoB between the genotype groups. This study shows that a polymorphism in the MTP gene affects the spectrum of endogenous apoB-containing lipoprotein particles produced in humans. Reduced direct production of LDL plus IDL appears to be related to lower plasma concentrations of large LDL particles.

Goossens GH, McQuaid SE, Dennis AL, van Baak MA, Blaak EE, Frayn KN, Saris WH, Karpe F. 2006. Angiotensin II: a major regulator of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in humans. J Physiol, 571 (Pt 2), pp. 451-460. | Show Abstract | Read more

We investigated the functional roles of circulating and locally produced angiotensin II (Ang II) in fasting and postprandial adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) regulation and examined the interaction between Ang II and nitric oxide (NO) in ATBF regulation. Local effects of the pharmacological agents (or contralateral saline) on ATBF, measured with 133Xe wash-out, were assessed using the recently developed microinfusion technique. Fasting and postprandial (75 g glucose challenge) ATBF regulation was investigated in nine lean healthy subjects (age, 29 +/- 3 years; BMI, 23.4 +/- 0.7 kg m(-2)) using local Ang II stimulation, Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Furthermore, NO synthase (NOS) blockade alone and in combination with AT1 receptor blockade was used to examine the interaction between Ang II and NO. Ang II induced a dose-dependent decrease in ATBF (10(-9)m: -16%, P = 0.04; 10(-7)m: -33%, P < 0.01; 10(-5)m: -53%P < 0.01). Fasting ATBF was not affected by ACE inhibition, but was increased by approximately 55% (P < 0.01) by AT(1) receptor blockade. NOS blockade induced a approximately 30% (P = 0.001) decrease in fasting ATBF. Combined AT1 receptor and NOS blockade increased ATBF by approximately 40% (P = 0.003). ACE inhibition and AT1 receptor blockade did not affect the postprandial increase in ATBF. We therefore conclude that circulating Ang II is a major regulator of fasting ATBF, and a major proportion of the Ang II-induced decrease in ATBF is NO independent. Locally produced Ang II does not appear to regulate ATBF. Ang II appears to have no major effect on the postprandial enhancement of ATBF.

Hofker M, Calabresi L, Eckardstein AV, Heeren J, Karpe F, Kronenberg F, Kuipers F, Lindstedt K et al. 2006. European Lipoprotein Club: Report of the 28th ELC Annual Conference, Tutzing, 12–15 September 2005 Atherosclerosis, 184 (2), pp. 451-457. | Read more

Tan GD, Neville MJ, Liverani E, Humphreys SM, Currie JM, Dennis L, Fielding BA, Karpe F. 2006. The in vivo effects of the Pro12Ala PPARgamma2 polymorphism on adipose tissue NEFA metabolism: the first use of the Oxford Biobank. Diabetologia, 49 (1), pp. 158-168. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the phenotypic effects of common polymorphisms on adipose tissue metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors, we set out to establish a biobank with the unique feature of allowing a prospective recruit-by-genotype approach. The first use of this biobank investigates the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) Pro12Ala polymorphism on integrative tissue-specific physiology. We hypothesised that Ala12 allele carriers demonstrate greater adipose tissue metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a comprehensive population register, subjects were recruited into a biobank, which was genotyped for the Pro12Ala polymorphism. Twelve healthy male Ala12 carriers and 12 matched Pro12 homozygotes underwent detailed physiological phenotyping using stable isotope techniques, and measurements of blood flow and arteriovenous differences in adipose tissue and muscle in response to a mixed meal containing [1,1,1-(13)C]tripalmitin. RESULTS: Of 6,148 invited subjects, 1,072 were suitable for inclusion in the biobank. Among Pro12 homozygotes, insulin sensitivity correlated with HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and inversely correlated with blood pressure, apolipoprotein B, triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. Ala12 carriers showed no such correlations. In the meal study, Ala12 carriers had lower plasma NEFA concentrations, higher adipose tissue and muscle blood flow, and greater insulin-mediated postprandial hormone-sensitive lipase suppression along with greater insulin sensitivity than Pro12 homozygotes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This study shows that a recruit-by-genotype approach is feasible and describes the biobank's first application, providing tissue-specific physiological findings consistent with the epidemiological observation that the PPAR Ala12 allele protects against the development of type 2 diabetes.

Frayn KN, Fielding BA, Karpe F. 2005. Adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol, 16 (4), pp. 409-415. | Show Abstract | Read more

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatty acid and triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue may be involved in the generation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Pharmaceutical companies are targeting adipocyte metabolism in their search for drugs for treating, or reducing the risk of, these conditions. We review new developments in adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism and how that might relate to cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Fatty acid release from human adipose tissue is oscillatory, with a period of about 12 min. Remarkably, oscillatory fatty acid release is also seen in isolated adipocytes. Further evidence has emerged that not all adipose depots are equal, and that lower-body adipose tissue may exert protective effects against cardiovascular disease. There have been a number of developments in the area of fatty acid handling by adipocytes. Fatty acid binding proteins are clearly important in regulating fatty acid metabolism, with striking protection against atherosclerosis in mice deficient in both the binding proteins expressed in adipocytes. The demonstration that adipocytes lacking hormone-sensitive lipase still display lipolysis has led to the identification of novel lipases that may play crucial roles in adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism. Further evidence has accrued of the interaction between hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin, the protein that coats the adipocyte lipid droplet. SUMMARY: Recent developments in our understanding of adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism open up the possibility of new pharmaceutical targets. However, interference with adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism is not to be undertaken lightly and needs a clear understanding of the normal role of adipocyte lipolysis.

Tan GD, Debard C, Funahashi T, Humphreys SM, Matsuzawa Y, Frayn KN, Karpe F, Vidal H. 2005. Changes in adiponectin receptor expression in muscle and adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic patients during rosiglitazone therapy. Diabetologia, 48 (8), pp. 1585-1589. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Adiponectin is important in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in man. Its receptors, adipoR1 and R2, have recently been identified, but their expression in adipose tissue and their regulation in response to insulin sensitisation of diabetic patients have never been assessed. We therefore explored the regulation of adipoR1/R2 and adiponectin expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and of adiponectin plasma concentrations in response to insulin sensitisation by rosiglitazone. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, using in vivo arteriovenous techniques of measuring adipose tissue and muscle blood flow, combined with measurement of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle gene expression. RESULTS: Rosiglitazone treatment increased adiponectin concentrations by 69%. Skeletal muscle adipoR1 expression was down-regulated from 109.0 (70.1-165.7) (median [interquartile range]) to 82.8 (63.6-89.3) relative units (p=0.04), but adipose tissue adipoR1 expression was up-regulated from 5.3 (4.4-9.4) to 11.2 (4.8-15.3) relative units (p=0.02) by rosiglitazone. In contrast to adipoR1 expression, adipoR2 expression was not altered by rosiglitazone in either of the tissues. The increase in adipose tissue adipoR1 expression with rosiglitazone was associated with increased postprandial triglyceride clearance (r=0.67, p=0.05), and increased fasting fatty acid output (r=0.78, p=0.01) measured in subcutaneous adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: AdipoR1 expression is up-regulated in adipose tissue but down-regulated in skeletal muscle by rosiglitazone. These data suggest that adipoR1 plays a role in mediating the effects of adiponectin in specific tissues in relation to insulin sensitisation.

Karpe F, Fielding BA, Coppack SW, Lawrence VJ, Macdonald IA, Frayn KN. 2005. Oscillations of fatty acid and glycerol release from human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Diabetes, 54 (5), pp. 1297-1303. | Show Abstract | Read more

We sought evidence for pulsatility of lipolysis in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Arterialized and adipose tissue venous blood samples were drawn at 2-min intervals from nine healthy subjects. This procedure was repeated during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to remove insulin pulsatility. We found evidence for pulsatile release of both nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (seven of nine subjects) and glycerol (five of six subjects) with a period of approximately 12-14 min. This pulsatility was maintained even during the hyperinsulinemic clamp. Checks were made for spurious pulse detection, including the creation of "mock" venoarterialized differences by subtracting one subject's arterialized concentrations from another's venous; the peaks detected were less consistent in character than with real data (peak width, P = 0.006; peak interval, P < 0.004). Significant cross-correlations between NEFA and glycerol release also provided evidence of a real effect. Arterialized norepinephrine concentrations were also pulsatile, but the period did not match that of NEFA and glycerol release. Insulin concentrations were pulsatile with a typical period of 12 min, but this was not significantly cross-correlated with lipolysis. We conclude that release from adipose tissue of the products of lipolysis is pulsatile in humans.

Risérus U, Tan GD, Fielding BA, Neville MJ, Currie J, Savage DB, Chatterjee VK, Frayn KN, O'Rahilly S, Karpe F. 2005. Rosiglitazone increases indexes of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in humans: link to insulin sensitization and the role of dominant-negative mutation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Diabetes, 54 (5), pp. 1379-1384. | Show Abstract | Read more

Fatty acid desaturases such as steaoryl-CoA desaturase (SCD) convert saturated to unsaturated fatty acids and are involved in lipogenesis. Observational and animal data suggest that SCD-1 activity is related to insulin sensitivity. However, the effects of insulin-sensitizing drugs on SCD gene expression and desaturase activities are unknown in humans. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes and one subject with partial lipodystrophy and diabetes due to dominant-negative mutation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) gene (P467L) received placebo and rosiglitazone for 3 months. SCD gene expression in adipose tissue was determined in 23 subjects, and in a representative subgroup (n = 10) we assessed fatty acid composition in fasting plasma triglycerides to estimate SCD and delta6- and delta5-desaturase activity, using product-to-precursor indexes. SCD mRNA expression increased by 48% after rosiglitazone (P < 0.01). SCD and delta5-desaturase but not delta6-desaturase activity indexes were increased after rosiglitazone versus placebo (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The change in activity index but not the expression of SCD was associated with improved insulin sensitivity (r = 0.73, P < 0.05). In the P467L PPARgamma carrier, SCD and delta5-desaturase activity indexes were exceptionally low but were restored (52- and 15-fold increases, respectively) after rosiglitazone treatment. This study shows for the first time that rosiglitazone increases SCD activity indexes and gene expression in humans. An increased SCD activity index may reflect increased lipogenesis and might contribute to insulin sensitization by rosiglitazone. The restored SCD activity index after rosiglitazone in PPARgamma mutation supports a pivotal role of PPARgamma function in SCD regulation.

Hofker M, Calabresi L, Jauhiainen M, Karpe F, Kuipers F, Mooser V, Rudling M, Schuster G, Dijk KWV. 2005. European Lipoprotein Club: Report of the 27th ELC Annual Conference, Tutzing, 6–9 September 2004 Atherosclerosis, 178 (2), pp. 407-415. | Read more

Tan GD, Fielding BA, Currie JM, Humphreys SM, Désage M, Frayn KN, Laville M, Vidal H, Karpe F. 2005. The effects of rosiglitazone on fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 48 (1), pp. 83-95. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the effects of rosiglitazone on NEFA and triglyceride metabolism in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of rosiglitazone in diet-treated type 2 diabetic subjects, we measured arteriovenous differences and tissue blood flow in forearm muscle and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, used stable isotope techniques, and analysed gene expression. Responses to a mixed meal containing [1,1,1-(13)C]tripalmitin were assessed. RESULTS: Rosiglitazone induced insulin sensitisation without altering fasting NEFA concentrations (-6.6%, p=0.16). Postprandial NEFA concentrations were lowered by rosiglitazone compared with placebo (-21%, p=0.04). Adipose tissue NEFA release was not decreased in the fasting state by rosiglitazone treatment (+24%, p=0.17) and was associated with an increased fasting hormone-sensitive lipase rate of action (+118%, p=0.01). Postprandial triglyceride concentrations were decreased by rosiglitazone treatment (-26%, p<0.01) despite unchanged fasting concentrations. Rosiglitazone did not change concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants. Adipose tissue blood flow increased with rosiglitazone (+32%, p=0.03). Postprandial triglyceride [(13)C]palmitic acid concentrations were unchanged, whilst NEFA [(13)C]palmitic acid concentrations were decreased (p=0.04). In muscle, hexokinase II mRNA expression was increased by rosiglitazone (+166%, p=0.001) whilst the expression of genes involved in insulin signalling was unchanged. Adipose tissue expression of FABP4, LPL and FAT/CD36 was increased. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Rosiglitazone decreases postprandial NEFA and triglyceride concentrations. This may represent decreased spillover of NEFAs from adipose tissue depots. Decreased delivery of NEFAs to the liver may lead to lowered postprandial triglyceride concentrations. Upregulation of hexokinase II expression in muscle may contribute to insulin sensitisation by rosiglitazone.

Ardilouze JL, Fielding BA, Curry JM, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2004. Role of leptin in regulating nitric oxide production and membrane microviscosity - Response CIRCULATION, 109 (22), pp. E316-E316.

Karpe F, Frayn KN. 2004. The nicotinic acid receptor--a new mechanism for an old drug. Lancet, 363 (9424), pp. 1892-1894. | Show Abstract | Read more

CONTEXT: Non-esterified fatty acids in plasma originate from adipose tissue. Delivery of fatty acids to the liver provides the substrate for VLDL triglycerides. Insulin-sensitive organs, overburdened by high concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, may develop resistance to insulin action. In addition, insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells may be impaired by long-standing elevation of concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid in plasma. Normally, such concentrations fluctuate over the day depending on the transient suppression of lipolysis from adipose tissue by insulin released after meals. Diurnal concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid are often elevated in obesity, in particular in male-pattern upper-body fat accumulation. Nicotinic acid is the only drug that primarily lowers concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and thereby lowers VLDL triglycerides. Nicotinic acid, or its analogues, seems to alleviate insulin resistance in the short-term whereas, paradoxically, the long-term effect is often the opposite. Suppression of lipolysis by nicotinic acid gives rise to a prominent rebound and the degree to which this occurs might explain this paradox. STARTING POINT: The exact cellular mechanism by which nicotinic acid exerts its antilipolytic effects has not been known until the recent discovery of a distinct G-protein coupled receptor. Nicotinic acid is a high affinity ligand, but the endogenous ligand is still unknown. Recently, Tina Rubic and colleagues (Biochem Pharmacol 2004; 67: 411-19) proposed a mechanism in which nicotinic acid stimulates cholesterol mobilisation from macrophages, thereby providing a potential link between regression of atherosclerosis and use of nicotinic acid. WHERE NEXT: Research on signalling through the nicotinic acid receptor might give rise to novel and more effective methods to interfere with fatty-acid metabolism, with insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia, and atherosclerosis as target diseases.

Ledmyr H, McMahon AD, Ehrenborg E, Nielsen LB, Neville M, Lithell H, MacFarlane PW, Packard CJ, Karpe F, WOSCOPS executive. 2004. The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene-493T variant lowers cholesterol but increases the risk of coronary heart disease. Circulation, 109 (19), pp. 2279-2284. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) transfers lipids into apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins for secretion from liver, intestine, and heart. The T-variant of a functional polymorphism in the MTP promoter, MTP-493G/T, has been associated with reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. We hypothesize that this polymorphism impacts on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of the polymorphism was therefore tested in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study biobank (580 cases and 1160 controls). MTP-493T carrier status was associated with significantly increased risk of CHD despite a small reduction in total cholesterol. Compared with the genotypic group with the lowest event rate (MTP-493GG, pravastatin treatment), the respective odds ratios (95% confidence interval) in the placebo group for CHD events were: GG, 1.23 (0.92 to 1.63); GT, 1.53 (1.12 to 2.08); and TT, 2.78 (1.53 to 5.05), suggestive of a gene-dose effect. The excess risk for CHD of the MTP-493T-variant was eliminated by pravastatin treatment. The Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM), which is a 20-year follow-up study of CHD, was used as an independent confirmatory database. These unexpected findings prompted the investigation of non-plasma lipid factors that could associate the MTP gene with CHD risk. In a limited number of subjects (n=18), heart muscle biopsies showed a MTP-493T genotype-specific depression of MTP mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: The MTP-493T variant confers an increased risk of CHD that is unrelated to plasma lipids and lipoproteins, but eliminated by pravastatin treatment. A direct effect of the MTP polymorphism on myocardial lipid metabolism and vulnerability upon ischemic damage cannot be excluded.

Frayn KN, Ardilouze JL, Fielding BA, Karpe F. 2004. Coupling of metabolism and cardiovascular responses. Clin Sci (Lond), 106 (5), pp. 547-548. | Read more

Hofker M, Calabresi L, Jauhiainen M, Nimpf J, Rudling M, Talmud P, Mooser V, Dallinga-Thie G et al. 2004. European Lipoprotein Club: report of the 26th ELC Annual Conference, Tutzing, 8-11 September 2003. Atherosclerosis, 173 (1), pp. 125-134. | Read more

Ardilouze JL, Karpe F, Currie JM, Frayn KN, Fielding BA. 2004. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow varies between superior and inferior levels of the anterior abdominal wall. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 28 (2), pp. 228-233. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Blood flow regulation is thought to mediate the metabolic functions of adipose tissue. Different depots, and even different layers within the subcutaneous adipose tissue, may vary in metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, we investigated if any differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) exist at different locations of the anterior abdominal wall. METHODS: ATBF was measured 8-10 cm above or below the umbilicus, at 8-10 cm (both sides) from the midline, in 18 healthy subjects (BMI range 18-33 kg/m(2)). Measurements of ATBF were performed using (133)xenon washout, during a stable baseline period and after ingestion of 75 g of glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, ATBF was greater at the upper level compared to the lower level (4.4+/-0.3 vs 3.8+/-0.2 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue(-1), P=0.005), but was not different between the right and the left sides at either level. ATBF increased in response to oral glucose at all sites. The mean increase at the superior level was also greater than the inferior level (3.5+/-0.7 vs 2.2+/-0.6 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue(-1), P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Even at a constant depth and with only 16-20 cm difference between sites, there are significant differences in function of the same adipose depot. These findings have physiological and methodological implications for in vivo metabolic studies of human adipose tissue.

Tan GD, Goossens GH, Humphreys SM, Vidal H, Karpe F. 2004. Upper and lower body adipose tissue function: a direct comparison of fat mobilization in humans. Obes Res, 12 (1), pp. 114-118. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVES: Fat in the lower body is not associated with the same risk of cardiovascular disease as fat in the upper body. Is this explained by differences in the physiological functioning of the two depots? This study had two objectives: 1) to determine whether fat mobilization and blood flow differ between gluteal and abdominal adipose tissues in humans, and 2) to develop a new technique to assess gluteal adipose tissue function directly. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We performed detailed in vivo studies of adipose tissue function involving the assessment of fat mobilization by measurement of adipose tissue blood flows, arterio-venous differences of metabolites across each depot, and gene expression in tissue biopsies in a small-scale physiological study. RESULTS: Gluteal adipose tissue has a lower blood flow (67% lower, p < 0.05) and lower hormone-sensitive lipase rate of action (87% lower, p < 0.05) than abdominal adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase rate of action and mRNA expression are not different between the depots. This is the first demonstration of a novel technique to directly investigate gluteal adipose tissue metabolism. DISCUSSION: Direct assessment of fasting adipose tissue metabolism in defined depots show that the buttock is metabolically "silent" in terms of fatty acid release compared with the abdomen.

Ardilouze JL, Fielding BA, Currie JM, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2004. Nitric oxide and beta-adrenergic stimulation are major regulators of preprandial and postprandial subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in humans. Circulation, 109 (1), pp. 47-52. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Blood flow mediates the metabolic and endocrine roles of adipose tissue. We have previously shown that the postprandial adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) increase is dependent on insulin sensitivity. However, subcutaneous local insulin delivery had no demonstrable effect on either preprandial or postprandial ATBF. We hypothesized that insulin may act indirectly via sympathetic activation, mainly in the postprandial period, and that nitric oxide may be an overall major regulator of subcutaneous ATBF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the endogenous preprandial and postprandial regulation of ATBF by applying local tissue blockade of beta-adrenergic (propranolol), alpha-adrenergic (phentolamine and yohimbine), and nitric oxide (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA) regulation of blood flow. Healthy subjects (body mass index, 18 to 31 kg/m2) were challenged with 75 g glucose for endogenous stimulation of ATBF. We used the novel "microinfusion" technique, which allows for simultaneous local delivery of pharmacological agents (or contralateral saline) and measurement of ATBF with the 133Xe washout method. Compared with control, the preprandial ATBF was not affected by propranolol but was increased by 21% (P<0.013) and 15% (P=0.004) with phentolamine and yohimbine, respectively. A decrease of 42% (2.97+/-0.33 versus 4.75+/-0.47 mL x min(-1) x 100 g tissue(-1), P<0.01) was seen with L-NMMA. The postprandial response was blunted by 58% (0.81+/-0.42 versus 1.90+/-0.44 mL x min(-1) x 100 g tissue(-1), P<0.004) with propranolol, but neither phentolamine, yohimbine, or L-NMMA altered this response. CONCLUSIONS: Nitric oxide seems to determine the absolute level of ATBF, whereas a major proportion of the postprandial enhancement of ATBF is under beta-adrenergic regulation in vivo in humans.

Skogsberg J, McMahon AD, Karpe F, Hamsten A, Packard CJ, Ehrenborg E, West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. 2003. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta genotype in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and risk of coronary heart disease in hypercholesterolaemic men. J Intern Med, 254 (6), pp. 597-604. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVES: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARD) is a transcription factor implicated in the regulation of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. We recently discovered a common polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the human PPARD, +294T/C, that is associated with an increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration in healthy subjects. Whether the +294C allele is associated with LDL-C elevation independently of the background lipoprotein phenotype and whether it confers increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is unknown. Against this background, we investigated the relationships between the PPARD polymorphism and plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the risk for contracting CHD in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS). DESIGN: A nested case-control study of participants in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pravastatin in mildly-to-moderately hypercholesterolaemic men. SUBJECTS: A total of 580 cases of incident CHD and 1160 individuals who remained free of CHD (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma lipoprotein concentrations and risk of CHD according to PPARD genotype. RESULTS: Individuals carrying the rare PPARD +294C allele had a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration than subjects homozygous for the common T-allele. Homozygous carriers of the C-allele also showed a tendency towards higher risk of CHD compared with homozygous carriers of the T-allele. In addition, a gene-gene interaction involving the PPARD polymorphism and the PPAR alpha L162V polymorphism may influence the plasma LDL-C concentration. CONCLUSIONS: PPARD plays a role in cholesterol metabolism in man.

Heath RB, Karpe F, Milne RW, Burdge GC, Wootton SA, Frayn KN. 2003. Selective partitioning of dietary fatty acids into the VLDL TG pool in the early postprandial period. J Lipid Res, 44 (11), pp. 2065-2072. | Show Abstract | Read more

Circulating triacylglycerol (TG) arises mainly from dietary fat. However, little is known about the entry of dietary fat into the major TG pool, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG. We used a novel method to study the specific incorporation of dietary fatty acids into postprandial VLDL TG in humans. Eight healthy volunteers (age 25.4 +/- 2.2 years, body mass index 22.1 +/- 2.3 kg/m2) were fed a mixed meal containing 30 g fish oil and 600 mg [1-13C]palmitic acid. Chylomicrons and VLDL were separated using immunoaffinity against apolipoprotein B-100. The fatty acid composition of lipoproteins was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. [1-13C]palmitic acid started to appear in VLDL TG 3 h after meal intake, and a similar delay was observed for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Approximately 20% of dietary fatty acids entered the VLDL TG pool 6 h after meal intake. DHA was clearly overincorporated into this pool compared with [1-13C]palmitic acid and EPA. This seemed to depend on a marked elevation of this fatty acid in the nonesterified fatty acid pool. In summary, the contribution of dietary fatty acids to early postprandial VLDL TG is substantial. The role of DHA in VLDL TG production will require further investigation.

Frayn KN, Karpe F, Fielding BA, Macdonald IA, Coppack SW. 2003. Integrative physiology of human adipose tissue. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 27 (8), pp. 875-888. | Show Abstract | Read more

Adipose tissue is now recognised as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Great strides have been made in uncovering the multiple functions of the adipocyte in cellular and molecular detail, but it is essential to remember that adipose tissue normally operates as a structured whole. Its functions are regulated by multiple external influences such as autonomic nervous system activity, the rate of blood flow and the delivery of a complex mix of substrates and hormones in the plasma. Attempting to understand how all these factors converge and regulate adipose tissue function is a prime example of integrative physiology. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities, including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissues to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. This implies the existence of one (or more) signal(s) to the adipose tissue that reflects the body's energy status, and points once again to the need for an integrative view of adipose tissue function.

Koutsari C, Karpe F, Humphreys SM, Frayn KN, Hardman AE. 2003. Plasma leptin is influenced by diet composition and exercise. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 27 (8), pp. 901-906. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: A low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (</=30% of total energy intake as fat) in conjunction with moderate intensity physical activity is widely recommended for weight maintenance and reduction. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding daily exercise to a short-term high-carbohydrate diet on fasting and postprandial leptin levels. SUBJECTS: Eight healthy, postmenopausal women aged 60+/-4 y (mean+/-s.d.) (body mass index, BMI: 26.4+/-2.3 kg m(-2); predicted maximal oxygen uptake: 29+/-2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). DESIGN: Plasma responses were studied after subjects consumed the same high-fat, mixed meal on three occasions: after 3 days on a low-carbohydrate diet (35, 50 and 15% energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein, respectively) (Low-CHO); after 3 days on an isoenergetic high-carbohydrate diet (corresponding values 70, 15 and 15%) (High-CHO); and after 3 days on the same high-carbohydrate diet with 60 min of brisk walking daily (High-CHO-Ex). MEASUREMENTS: Fasting and postprandial plasma or serum concentrations of leptin, glucose and insulin. RESULTS: Fasting leptin was significantly higher (P<0.05) after the High-CHO (18.4+/-2.6 ng ml(-1)) (mean+/-s.e.m.) than after both the Low-CHO and the High-CHO-Ex interventions, which did not differ significantly from each other (16.9+/-2.1 and 15.5+/-2.0 ng ml(-1), respectively; P=0.08). Overall (fasted and postprandial states), plasma leptin concentrations were significantly higher after the High-CHO than after the High-CHO-Ex intervention. There was a strong, positive, linear relation between postprandial insulin responses and postprandial leptin concentrations at 6 h. In addition, there was a strong, negative, linear relation between whole-body insulin sensitivity (based on postprandial responses of glucose and insulin) and postprandial leptin concentrations at 6 h. CONCLUSION: Daily moderate intensity exercise, without concomitant changes in body fat mass, suppressed fasting and postprandial circulating leptin concentrations after consumption of a short-term high-carbohydrate diet. As shown in previous studies, insulin appears to be an important modulator of leptinaemia.

Tan GD, Debard C, Tiraby C, Humphreys SM, Frayn KN, Langin D, Vidal H, Karpe F. 2003. A "futile cycle" induced by thiazolidinediones in human adipose tissue? Nat Med, 9 (7), pp. 811-812. | Read more

Savage DB, Tan GD, Acerini CL, Jebb SA, Agostini M, Gurnell M, Williams RL, Umpleby AM et al. 2003. Human metabolic syndrome resulting from dominant-negative mutations in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Diabetes, 52 (4), pp. 910-917. | Show Abstract | Read more

We previously reported a syndrome of severe hyperinsulinemia and early-onset hypertension in three patients with dominant-negative mutations in the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma. We now report the results of further detailed pathophysiological evaluation of these subjects, the identification of affected prepubertal children within one of the original families, and the effects of thiazolidinedione therapy in two subjects. These studies 1) definitively demonstrate the presence of severe peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance in the affected subjects; 2) describe a stereotyped pattern of partial lipodystrophy associated with all the features of the metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; 3) document abnormalities in the in vivo function of remaining adipose tissue, including the inability of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue to trap and store free fatty acids postprandially and the presence of very low circulating levels of adiponectin; 4) document the presence of severe hyperinsulinemia in prepubertal carriers of the proline-467-leucine (P467L) PPAR-gamma mutation; 5) provide the first direct evidence of cellular resistance to PPAR-gamma agonists in mononuclear cells derived from the patients; and 6) report on the metabolic response to thiazolidinedione therapy in two affected subjects. Although the condition is rare, the study of humans with dominant-negative mutations in PPAR-gamma can provide important insight into the roles of this nuclear receptor in human metabolism.

Skoglund-Andersson C, Ehrenborg E, Fisher RM, Olivecrona G, Hamsten A, Karpe F. 2003. Influence of common variants in the CETP, LPL, HL and APO E genes on LDL heterogeneity in healthy, middle-aged men. Atherosclerosis, 167 (2), pp. 311-317. | Show Abstract | Read more

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size is a genetically influenced trait associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). This study investigates the effects of genetic variation in plasma factors with important roles in lipoprotein metabolism on LDL heterogeneity. Common variants in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP-629C/A), lipoprotein lipase (LPL S447X), hepatic lipase (HL-480C/T) and apolipoprotein E (apoE e2/e3/e4) genes were studied in relation to LDL particle size distribution in 377 healthy, middle-aged men. A high-resolution polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis technique was used to measure plasma concentrations of four LDL subfractions. The CETP-629A and LPL 447X alleles were associated with moderately increased LDL peak particle size. In contrast, the apoE e4 allele was associated with a marked reduction in LDL peak particle size and an increased relative proportion and plasma concentration of small, dense LDL. An interaction between the HL-480C/T and apo E polymorphisms contributed significantly to increased plasma concentration of small, dense LDL (LDL-III) in HL-480T carriers. In summary, the investigated polymorphisms were associated with diverse effects on the LDL particle size distribution, consistent with respect to protein function and proposed association with CHD risk. The observed associations were further modulated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

Cited:

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Tan GD, Debard C, Tiraby C, Humphreys SM, Frayn KN, Langin D, Vidal H, Karpe F, Guan HP, Lazar MA. 2003. A "futile cycle" induced by thiazolidinediones in human adipose tissue? [1] (multiple letters) Nature Medicine, 9 (7), pp. 811-812. | Read more

Skoglund-Andersson C, Karpe F, Hellénius ML, Regnström J, Hamsten A, Tornvall P. 2003. In vitro and in vivo lipolysis of plasma triglycerides increases the resistance to oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins. Eur J Clin Invest, 33 (1), pp. 51-57. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The majority of studies on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size and susceptibility to oxidative modification have been either descriptive or interventional, but there are few mechanistic studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effects of exhaustive in vitro and in vivo lipolysis of serum and plasma triglycerides, respectively, by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were investigated in healthy normotriglyceridemic men. The LDL end-product of lipolysis of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) underwent compositional analysis, gradient gel electrophoresis and an assessment of resistance to copper-induced oxidative modification. RESULTS: The LDL particle contents of free fatty acid and alpha-tocopherol increased, whereas the contents of free and esterified cholesterol, alpha-carotene and coenzyme Q10 decreased upon incubation of serum with LPL in vitro. The LDL particle size decreased and the resistance to the oxidative modification of LDL increased. Lipolysis of plasma triglycerides in vivo, achieved by intravenous injection of heparin, did not alter the LDL particle size but increased the resistance to the oxidative modification of LDL. This change was accompanied by an increase in the LDL particle content of alpha-tocopherol, whereas the free fatty acid content was unaltered. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the increased resistance to oxidative modification of LDL after lipolysis of plasma triglycerides was concomitant with an increased LDL particle content of alpha-tocopherol, and that free fatty acids did not seem to contribute to the increased resistance to oxidative modification of LDL in vivo. Furthermore, our data indicate that the resistance of LDL to oxidative modification is not dependent on particle size.

Beysen C, Belcher AK, Karpe F, Fielding BA, Herrera E, Frayn KN. 2003. Novel experimental protocol to increase specific plasma nonesterified fatty acids in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 284 (1), pp. E18-E24. | Show Abstract | Read more

This study reports a novel protocol to increase plasma monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in eight healthy volunteers (age 29-54 yr, body mass index 23-26 kg/m(2)). This was achieved by feeding small boluses of fat at different time points (35 g at 0 min and 8 g at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 min) in combination with a continuous low-dose heparin infusion. Olive oil, safflower oil, or palm stearin were used to increase monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, or saturated NEFAs, respectively. Plasma NEFA concentrations were increased for 2 h, when fat and heparin were given (olive oil: 745 +/- 35 micromol/l; safflower oil: 609 +/- 37 micromol/l, and palm stearin: 773 +/- 38 micromol/l) compared with the control test (no fat and no heparin: 445 +/- 41 micromol/l). During the heparin infusion, 18:1 n-9 was the most abundant fatty acid for the olive oil test compared with 18:2 n-6 for the safflower oil test and 16:0 for the palm stearin test (P < 0.01). The method described here successfully increases several types of plasma NEFA concentrations and could be used to investigate differential effects of elevated individual NEFAs on metabolic processes.

Huxley RR, Hawkins MH, Humphries SE, Karpe F, Neil HA, Simon Broome Familial Hyperlipidaemia Register Group and Scientific Steering Committee. 2003. Risk of fatal stroke in patients with treated familial hypercholesterolemia: a prospective registry study. Stroke, 34 (1), pp. 22-25. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although it is recognized that in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, large extracranial carotid vessels are affected by atherosclerosis, the risk of fatal stroke after treatment with cholesterol-lowering therapy remains uncertain. The goal of this study was to determine the risk of fatal stroke in patients with treated familial hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: A cohort of 1405 men and 1466 women with definite or possible heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia was recruited from 21 outpatient lipid clinics in the United Kingdom. Patients were followed up prospectively from 1980 to 1998 for 22 992 person-years for a median duration of 7.9 years (interquartile range, 4.9 to 12.0 years). The mortality rate was calculated, and the standardized mortality ratio for men and women 20 to 79 years of age was derived from the ratio of the observed deaths to the number expected in the general population of England and Wales (standardized mortality ratio=100 for the standard population). RESULTS: A total of 169 deaths occurred; 9 (5.3%) were a result of stroke. The mortality rate from stroke was 0.39 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.74), and the standardized mortality ratio for fatal stroke was nonsignificantly lower than in the general population (79; 95% CI, 36 to 150). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that patients with treated familial hypercholesterolemia are not at increased risk of fatal stroke. However, the possibility cannot be excluded that untreated individuals are at increased risk, which would be consistent with the evidence that familial hypercholesterolemia is a panvascular disease.

Karpe F, Holman R. 2002. Fire-and-forget in prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet, 360 (9349), pp. 1984. | Read more

Beysen C, Karpe F, Fielding BA, Clark A, Levy JC, Frayn KN. 2002. Interaction between specific fatty acids, GLP-1 and insulin secretion in humans. Diabetologia, 45 (11), pp. 1533-1541. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fatty acids affect insulin secretion in vivo, but little is known about the effects of specific fatty acids. Our aim was to investigate differential effects of acutely increased plasma monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in healthy humans. METHODS: A new experimental protocol was used to increase plasma monounsaturated (MUFA test), polyunsaturated (PUFA test) or saturated (SFA test) non-esterified fatty acids for 2 h by repeated oral fat feeding and continuous intravenous heparin infusion. This was followed by a hyperglycaemic clamp (10 mmol/l) to test insulin secretion in response to a prior plasma NEFA increase. RESULTS: Total plasma NEFA concentrations were increased during the fat tests compared to the control visit (1.7-fold increase for MUFA and SFA tests and 1.4-fold increase for PUFA test; p<0.001). Exaggerated responses in plasma insulin, C-peptide and proinsulin concentrations were seen during the hyperglycaemic clamp after increasing plasma NEFA concentrations compared with the control (p<0.01). The effects were greatest for the MUFA test followed by the PUFA test and SFA test (p<0.01). Plasma GLP-1 concentrations increased during fat feeding, with a higher response during the MUFA test compared to PUFA and SFA tests (p<0.01). CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Increasing plasma NEFA concentrations by oral fat feeding with heparin infusion augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion with the greatest effect for monounsaturated fatty acids and the lowest effect for saturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids also increase GLP-1 more than saturated fatty acids. Therefore, the exaggerated insulin concentrations could be due to both NEFA and GLP-1.

Ulahannan TJ, Karpe F, Humphreys SM, Matthews DR, Frayn KN. 2002. Effects of acute administration of doxazosin on fasting and postprandial haemodynamics and lipid metabolism in healthy subjects. Horm Metab Res, 34 (9), pp. 499-503. | Show Abstract | Read more

The selective alpha1 -adrenoceptor antagonist doxazosin has apparently beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and on plasma lipid concentrations. In order to understand these effects better, we investigated the acute effects of doxazosin on adipose tissue and forearm blood flow and on postprandial lipid metabolism in healthy subjects. Nine subjects were studied in a balanced, placebo-controlled design. Pulse rate, blood pressure, forearm and subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow were measured before and for 6 h after a mixed meal, with concomitant measurements of blood metabolites and insulin. Doxazosin increased pulse rate (p = 0.02) and forearm blood flow (p < 0.01 in fasting state), and decreased vascular resistance in forearm (p < 0.05 for fasting values) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (p = 0.04). Fasting plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were increased by 40 % (p < 0.05). No other metabolic effects were detected. The effects on adipose tissue vascular resistance and lipolysis (reflected in elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations) were unexpected, as these are usually considered to be mediated by the balance of alpha2 - and beta-adrenoceptor activity in humans. We conclude that alpha1 -adrenoceptor activity may be more important in regulation of human lipid metabolism than previously recognized.

Björkegren J, Silveira A, Boquist S, Tang R, Karpe F, Bond MG, de Faire U, Hamsten A. 2002. Postprandial enrichment of remnant lipoproteins with apoC-I in healthy normolipidemic men with early asymptomatic atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 22 (9), pp. 1470-1474. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVES: Recently, we reported that exaggerated postprandial triglyceridemia in normolipidemic patients with coronary artery disease is associated with enrichment of remnant lipoproteins with apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I). In this study, the number and composition of chylomicron remnants and very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) were examined in 30 asymptomatic normolipidemic 50-year-old men with and without early carotid atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intima-media thickness of the far wall of the common carotid artery was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins were subfractionated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and separated into VLDL and chylomicron remnant fractions by immunoaffinity chromatography. The postprandial triglyceridemia and increase in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle number (ie, apolipoprotein B concentrations) were not exaggerated in men with early atherosclerosis. In contrast, their large (Svedberg flotation rate 60 to 400) and small (Svedberg flotation rate 20 to 60) chylomicron remnants and VLDL were greatly enriched with apoC-I, and their small chylomicron remnants and VLDL particles were relatively enriched with cholesterol. Moreover, the number of apoC-I molecules on small chylomicron remnants was strongly associated with the degree of atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: Early asymptomatic atherosclerosis in normolipidemic men without exaggerated postprandial triglyceridemia is associated with the enrichment of postprandial chylomicron and VLDL particles with apoC-I. Therefore, it is conceivable that the apoC-I content of lipoprotein remnants may serve as an early marker of coronary artery disease risk.

Karpe F, Fielding BA, Ilic V, Macdonald IA, Summers LK, Frayn KN. 2002. Impaired postprandial adipose tissue blood flow response is related to aspects of insulin sensitivity. Diabetes, 51 (8), pp. 2467-2473. | Show Abstract | Read more

Obesity has been associated with dysfunctional postprandial adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF), but it has also been recognized that the interindividual response is highly variable. The present work aimed at characterizing this variability. Fifteen subjects were given 75 g oral glucose, and abdominal subcutaneous ATBF was monitored by the (133)Xe washout method. Determinants of insulin sensitivity based on nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression after oral glucose administration [ISI(NEFA)] were higher in the top tertile ATBF response group (1.29 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.08 in the lower tertiles, P = 0.01). ISI(NEFA) was related to ATBF response (r(s) = 0.73, P < 0.002) as well as insulin sensitivity based on postprandial glycemia [ISI(gly), r(s) = 0.58, P < 0.05], whereas the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (r(s) = -0.39, P = 0.16) was not. The relationship between increase in ATBF and ISI(NEFA) was independent of BMI (P = 0.015) in multivariate analysis. Subjects with a high ATBF response had significantly higher increase of plasma norepinephrine (P < 0.05), indicating a link between postprandial insulinemia, sympathetic activation, and ATBF response. There is a close relationship between insulin sensitivity and the regulation of postprandial ATBF, independent of adiposity. Impaired regulation of ATBF seems to be another facet of the insulin resistance syndrome.

Boquist S, Karpe F, Danell-Toverud K, Hamsten A. 2002. Effects of atorvastatin on postprandial plasma lipoproteins in postinfarction patients with combined hyperlipidaemia. Atherosclerosis, 162 (1), pp. 163-170. | Show Abstract | Read more

Enhanced and prolonged postprandial lipaemia is implicated in coronary and carotid artery disease. This study assessed the effects of atorvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, on postprandial plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). Sixteen middle-aged men with combined hyperlipidaemia (baseline low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and plasma triglyceride concentrations (median (interquartile range) of 4.54 (4.17-5.26)) and 2.66 (2.04-3.20) mmol/l, respectively) and previous myocardial infarction were randomised to atorvastatin 40 mg or placebo once daily for 8 weeks in a double-blind, cross-over design. The apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and B-100 contents were determined in subfractions of TRLs as a measure of chylomicron remnant and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle concentrations (expressed as mg apo B-48 or apo B-100 per litre of plasma), in the fasting state and after intake of a mixed meal. Atorvastatin treatment reduced significantly the fasting plasma concentrations of VLDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and VLDL triglycerides (median% change) by 29, 44 and 27%, respectively, and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 19%, compared with baseline. The postprandial plasma concentrations of large (Svedberg flotation rate (Sf) 60-400) and small (Sf 20-60) VLDLs and chylomicron remnants were almost halved compared with baseline (mean 0-6 h plasma concentrations were reduced by 48% for Sf 60-400 apo B-100, by 46% for Sf 60-400 apo B-48, by 46% for Sf 20-60 apo B-100 and by 27% for Sf 20-60 apo B-48), and the postprandial triglyceridaemia was reduced by 23% during active treatment. In conclusion, atorvastatin 40 mg once daily causes profound reductions of postprandial plasma concentrations of all TRLs in combined hyperlipidaemic patients with premature coronary artery disease.

Karpe F, Fielding BA, Ardilouze JL, Ilic V, Macdonald IA, Frayn KN. 2002. Effects of insulin on adipose tissue blood flow in man. J Physiol, 540 (Pt 3), pp. 1087-1093. | Show Abstract | Read more

Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) rises after nutrient ingestion. It is not clear whether this is due to insulin. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of insulin in the regulation of subcutaneous ATBF. We have investigated the role of insulin in the regulation of ATBF in normal, healthy subjects in a three-step procedure to determine the functional level at which insulin may potentially exert its effect. Fifteen subjects were studied on two occasions. On the first visit, 75 g oral glucose was given. In the second, similar plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were achieved by dynamic intravenous infusions of insulin and glucose. The increase in ATBF after oral glucose (4.2 +/- 1.4 ml min(-1) (100 g tissue)(-1), P = 0.01) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that after intravenous infusions (1.5 +/- 0.6 ml min(-1) (100 g tissue)(-1) P < 0.05). For the local delivery of potentially vasoactive substances and simultaneous measurement of ATBF, we describe a novel combination of methods, which we have called 'microinfusion'. We have used this technique to show that locally infused insulin, even at pharmacological concentrations, had no demonstrable effect on ATBF in nine subjects. We conclude that whilst insulin does not have a direct effect on ATBF, it is likely to be an important mediator, possibly acting via sympathetic activation. In the postprandial state, other candidate peptides and hormones are also likely to play important roles.

Skogsberg J, McMahon AD, Karpe F, Hamsten A, Packard CJ, Ehranborg E. 2002. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor delta genotype in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and risk of coronary disease in hypercholesterolemic men CIRCULATION, 105 (14), pp. E104-E104.

Skoog T, Dichtl W, Boquist S, Skoglund-Andersson C, Karpe F, Tang R, Bond MG, de Faire U, Nilsson J, Eriksson P, Hamsten A. 2002. Plasma tumour necrosis factor-alpha and early carotid atherosclerosis in healthy middle-aged men. Eur Heart J, 23 (5), pp. 376-383. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS: Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which is implicated in some metabolic disorders and may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. We examined whether plasma TNF-alpha is related to established cardiovascular risk indicators, plasma levels of soluble cellular adhesion molecules and carotid artery intima-media thickness determined by ultrasound examination in a population-based cohort of 96 healthy 50-year-old men. METHODS AND RESULTS: TNF-alpha and cellular adhesion molecules were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma TNF-alpha concentration was associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, degrees of alimentary lipaemia, plasma very low density lipoprotein triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations and peak LDL particle size. Two indices of insulin resistance as well as all soluble cellular adhesion molecules correlated positively with TNF-alpha. The plasma TNF-alpha concentration was associated with common carotid intima-media thickness in univariate analysis. In contrast, soluble E-selectin and postprandial triglycerides, but not TNF-alpha, were independent determinants of common carotid intima--media thickness. CONCLUSION: The plasma TNF-alpha concentration is associated with degrees of early atherosclerosis and correlates with metabolic and cellular perturbations that are considered important for the vascular process.

Lundahl B, Hamsten A, Karpe F. 2002. Postprandial plasma ApoB-48 levels are influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 22 (2), pp. 289-293. | Show Abstract | Read more

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) plays a key role in the secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins. The rare variant of a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the MTP gene has been associated with elevated transcriptional activity of the gene in vitro (MTP-493G/T). With use of a "recruit-by-genotype" approach, we investigated one of the potentially complex phenotypes of this polymorphism, the appearance in plasma of apoB-48 after a meal intake. A total of 12 homozygous carriers of the rare MTP-493T variant were identified from a population-based screening of 50-year-old healthy white men. All subjects were of the apoE3/3 genotype. Along with 48 baseline well-matched heterozygotes (n=24) plus homozygotes (n=24) for the common variant, they were given a standardized oral fat meal. Postprandial plasma concentrations of apoB-48 were determined by the combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and analytical SDS-PAGE. The postprandial plasma concentrations of triglycerides did not differ between the groups, but homozygous carriers of the rare MTP-493T variant showed a >100% greater increase in apoB-48 in the smallest (Svedberg flotation rate constant 20 to 60) triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction (P=0.005). These data support the notion that elevated transcriptional activity of MTP leads to an increased generation of the smallest triglyceride-rich lipoprotein from the intestine.

Karpe F, Coppack SW. 2002. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: Preface Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Supplement, 95 (42), pp. 1-2.

Karpe F, Holman R, Shepherd J. 2002. Fire-and-forget in prevention of coronary heart disease [15] (multiple letters) Lancet, 360 (9349), pp. 1984.

Karpe F, Fielding BA, Ilic V, Humphreys SM, Frayn KN. 2002. Monitoring adipose tissue blood flow in man: a comparison between the (133)xenon washout method and microdialysis. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 26 (1), pp. 1-5. | Show Abstract | Read more

INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) increases after meal intake and a failure to regulate ATBF in the postprandial period seems to be a feature of insulin resistance and obesity. ATBF can be measured quantitatively by the (133)Xe washout technique, but the microdialysis ethanol escape method has also been employed to detect relative changes in ATBF. METHODS: We compared (133)Xe washout and the recovery of exogenous ethanol and endogenous urea by microdialysis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, after physiological stimulation of ATBF by ingestion of oral glucose (75 g) in eight healthy people (age 23-52 y, body mass index (BMI) 19.4-29.6 kg/m(2)). RESULTS: The ATBF response was heterogeneous. In subjects responding vigorously to the stimulus as measured by (133)Xe washout, the microdialysis ethanol escape was increased (indicating an increase in ATBF). An increased recovery of urea was observed, also indicating an increase in ATBF. The recovery of both small molecules was delayed compared with increased blood flow and failed to return to baseline in response to a rapid decline in ATBF. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the (133)Xe washout technique is more responsive to physiological change in ATBF than ethanol escape or urea recovery by microdialysis.

Ledmyr H, Karpe F, Lundahl B, McKinnon M, Skoglund-Andersson C, Ehrenborg E. 2002. Variants of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene are associated with plasma cholesterol levels and body mass index. J Lipid Res, 43 (1), pp. 51-58. | Show Abstract

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins from liver and intestine. We set out to study the phenotypic modulation of all common genetic variants in the MTP gene. In addition, we aimed at characterizing the association between the various polymorphisms. A total of 564 healthy men were genotyped for the MTP -493 G/T, -400 A/T, and -164 T/C promoter polymorphisms, as well as the Q/H 95, I/T 128, Q/E 244, and H/Q 297 missense polymorphisms. The -493 G/T, -164 T/C, and I/T 128 polymorphisms showed to be in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. Subjects homozygous for the less common -493 T, -164 C, and T 128 alleles showed significantly lower plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels and plasma LDL apoB levels, and also significantly higher body mass index (BMI) and plasma insulin levels compared with carriers of the common alleles. The associations between plasma total cholesterol and MTP -493 genotype was verified in a cohort consisting of 1,117 disease-free control subjects of the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS). None of the other polymorphisms showed any significant change in either lipid and lipoprotein levels or anthropometric variables. In summary, two promoter polymorphisms and one missense polymorphism in the MTP gene alter plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels, plasma LDL apoB levels, BMI, and insulin levels. This may, in turn, have implications for genetic regulation of cardiovascular risk factors.

Koutsari C, Karpe F, Humphreys SM, Frayn KN, Hardman AE. 2001. Exercise prevents the accumulation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants seen when changing to a high-carbohydrate diet. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 21 (9), pp. 1520-1525. | Show Abstract | Read more

We tested the hypothesis that daily aerobic exercise opposes the fasting hypertriglyceridemia and exaggerated postprandial lipemia observed after substituting dietary fat with carbohydrate. Eight healthy postmenopausal women aged 51 to 66 years consumed the same high-fat mixed meal on 3 occasions: (1) after 3 days on a low-carbohydrate diet (35%, 50%, and 15% energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively); (2) after 3 days on an isoenergetic high-carbohydrate diet (corresponding values 70%, 15%, and 15%); and (3) after 3 days on the same high-carbohydrate diet with 60 minutes of brisk walking daily. Plasma triglycerides were higher after the high-carbohydrate diet than after the low-carbohydrate diet: fasting, 1.58+/-0.19 versus 0.96+/-0.12 mmol/L, respectively; 6-hour postprandial area under concentration versus time curve, 13.74+/-1.57 versus 10.12+/-1.15 (mmol/L)xhour, respectively (both P<0.01). In the fasted and postprandial states, concentrations of apolipoproteins B-48 and B-100 in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction were significantly higher after the high-carbohydrate diet, as was the concentration of remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (a measure of lipoprotein remnants). These carbohydrate-induced increases in the number of circulating triglyceride-rich particles and their remnants were abolished when subjects had exercised daily during the high-carbohydrate diet.

Karpe F, Taskinen MR, Nieminen MS, Frick MH, Kesäniemi YA, Pasternack A, Hamsten A, Syvänne M. 2001. Remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol concentration and progression of coronary and vein-graft atherosclerosis in response to gemfibrozil treatment. Atherosclerosis, 157 (1), pp. 181-187. | Show Abstract | Read more

Remnant lipoproteins such as chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants have been implicated in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Recently, a novel method for the determination of the remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) concentration was developed based on immunoaffinity-separation of plasma. The compositional characteristics of RLP are strikingly similar to those of postprandially modified VLDL. In addition, the method also detects chylomicron remnants. We investigated the relationship between the plasma RLP-C concentration and the angiographic outcome of the 2-year, randomised, placebo-controlled Lipid Coronary Angiography Trial (LOCAT), which used gemfibrozil as lipid lowering agent. The RLP-C response to gemfibrozil treatment has not been described before. Gemfibrozil reduced the median RLP-C concentration by 34%. The on-treatment RLP-C concentration was significantly associated with the progression of the minimum lumen diameter (MLD) (P<0.004). The plasma levels of RLP-C as well as the change in response to treatment was closely associated with plasma triglycerides and the association between on-treatment RLP-C concentration and progression of MLD was not independent of plasma triglycerides. A significant relation was seen between RLP-C and the occurrence of new lesions in vein grafts. Subjects with one new lesion had an approximately 25% higher on-treatment RLP-C concentration and the four patients showing two new lesions had a 100% higher RLP-C concentration than patients without vein graft stenosis. A total of 19 out of 23 subjects having one new lesion, and all four patients showing two new lesions, were assigned to the placebo group. We conclude that the RLP-C concentration, which is likely to reflect the plasma cholesterol contained in postprandially modified VLDL and chylomicron remnants, is strongly associated with angiographically verified progression of focal coronary atherosclerosis, and that lowering of RLPs prevents vein graft stenosis.

Beysen C, Karpe F, Levy JC, Fielding B, Clark A, Frayn KN. 2001. Difference in insulinotropic effect of elevated plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy man DIABETES, 50 pp. A305-A305.

Karpe F, Boquist S, Tang R, Bond GM, de Faire U, Hamsten A. 2001. Remnant lipoproteins are related to intima-media thickness of the carotid artery independently of LDL cholesterol and plasma triglycerides. J Lipid Res, 42 (1), pp. 17-21. | Show Abstract

Remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) have been implicated in the early development of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the plasma concentration of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) in a cohort of healthy 50-year-old men in whom the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) was assessed by B-mode ultrasound as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis. The subjects were given a fat-rich meal to study the generation of RLP-C during postprandial lipemia. Fasting plasma RLP-C and other major fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins were determined twice, and the mean RLP-C concentration was strongly correlated with CCA-IMT (r = 0.32, P = 0.002). In addition, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r = 0.25, P = 0.01) and plasma triglycerides (r = 0.20, P = 0.05) were significantly related to CCA-IMT. Multivariate analyses showed a triglyceride-independent contribution of RLP-C to CCA-IMT. After fat intake, the median plasma RLP-C concentration was doubled after 3 h. The increase was strongly related to the postprandial generation of TRL apolipoprotein (apo)B-48, and large (S(f) 60;-400) TRL apoB-100. The association with CCA-IMT was somewhat stronger for the 3-h RLP-C level than for the fasting RLP-C concentration [r = 0.27, P < 0.01 (3 h) compared with r = 0.22, P < 0.05 (0 h)]. We conclude that the plasma concentration of RLP-C is related to CCA-IMT, independent of plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, in a healthy middle-aged male population. - Karpe, F., S. Boquist, R. Tang, G. M. Bond, U. de Faire, and A. Hamsten. Remnant lipoproteins are related to intima-media thickness of the carotid artery independently of LDL cholesterol and plasma triglycerides. J. Lipid Res. 2001. 42: 17;-21.

Andersson C, Ledmyr H, McKinnon M, Karpe F, Ehrenborg E. 2000. The effect of six polymorphisms in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene on distribution of LDL subtractions in healthy middle-aged men CIRCULATION, 102 (18), pp. 860-860.

Björn Lundahl, Leren TP, Ose L, Hamsten A, Karpe F. 2000. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP -493G/T) influences lipoprotein phenotype in familial hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 20 (7), pp. 1784-1788. | Show Abstract | Read more

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) has a key function in intracellular apolipoprotein (apo) B lipidation and secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). A recently discovered functional polymorphism in the promoter of the MTP gene (-493G/T) affects the plasma concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the VLDL distribution between large and small particle species in healthy men. This phenotype is likely to be explained by an effect on VLDL synthesis. Against this background, we studied the effect of the MTP-493G/T polymorphism in a large cohort (217 men and 211 women) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). A 40% to 50% lower serum triglyceride level was observed in homozygous carriers of the MTP-493 T allele (T/T, 0.93+/-0.34; G/T, 1.54+/-1.40; and G/G, 1.56+/-1.24 mmol/L; T/T vs G/T P=0.04, T/T vs G/G P=0.02). In contrast to the situation in healthy subjects, the MTP promoter polymorphism did not have a significant effect on the LDL cholesterol levels in FH subjects, although the same trend was observed (T/T, 7.31+/-1.87; G/T, 7. 80+/-2.12; and G/G, 7.91+/-2.31 mmol/L, NS). Adjustment for the apo E gene polymorphism by inclusion of subjects homozygous for the apo E3 allele only revealed a reciprocal high density lipoprotein cholesterol-elevating effect (T/T, 1.41+/-0.73; G/T, 1.18+/-0.27; and G/G, 1.16+/-0.29 mmol/L; T/T vs G/T P=0.06, T/T vs G/G P=0.04). This effect seemed to be sex-specific because it was accounted for by the female patients. In conclusion, the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of the rare MTP gene promoter variant (MTP-493T) present in healthy subjects is shifted to a triglyceride-lowering effect in FH. These data suggest that the MTP gene has a role in modulating the clinical phenotype of FH.

van't Hooft FM, Lundahl B, Ragogna F, Karpe F, Olivecrona G, Hamsten A. 2000. Functional characterization of 4 polymorphisms in promoter region of hepatic lipase gene. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 20 (5), pp. 1335-1339. | Show Abstract | Read more

Hepatic lipase (HL) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins, especially high density lipoproteins. Association studies have provided strong evidence for relations of common mutations in the promoter region of the HL gene to postheparin plasma HL activity and the plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, but the functional relevance of these polymorphisms has not been evaluated to date. We analyzed the physiological significance of 4 common polymorphisms (-250G/A, -514C/T, -710T/C, and -763A/G, all in strong linkage disequilibrium) in the promoter of the HL gene by use of electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transient transfection studies in HepG2 cells. No consistent evidence was found for a significant contribution of any of these polymorphisms to the basal rate of transcription of the HL gene. These data suggest that the 4 polymorphisms in the promoter region of the HL gene are in linkage disequilibrium with >/=1 as-yet-unknown functional polymorphisms in the HL gene locus with a significant effect on HL metabolism and/or enzymatic activity.

Boquist S, Karpe F, Danell-Toverud K, Hamsten A. 2000. Effects of atorvastatin on fasting and postprandial plasma lipoproteins in postinfarction patients with combined hyperlipidemia JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, 35 (2), pp. 315A-315A.

Boquist S, Hamsten A, Karpe F, Ruotolo G. 2000. Insulin and non-esterified fatty acid relations to alimentary lipaemia and plasma concentrations of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in healthy middle-aged men. Diabetologia, 43 (2), pp. 185-193. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Enhanced and prolonged postprandial lipaemia is related to cardiovascular disease but how postprandial lipaemia is regulated is poorly known. We therefore determined the relations of fasting insulin concentrations to fasting and postprandial lipids, lipoproteins and non-esterified fatty acids in middle-aged men. METHODS: The subjects, 99 healthy 50-year-old men with an apolipoprotein E3/3 genotype, ate a mixed meal. The apolipoprotein B-48 and B-100 contents were determined in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as a measure of chylomicron remnant and very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. RESULTS: Fasting plasma insulin was associated with the triglyceride response to the test meal, independently of body mass index, waist-to-hip circumference ratio, blood glucose and the insulin effect on fasting plasma triglycerides. Exaggerated and prolonged postprandial lipaemia in subjects in the upper quartile of the plasma insulin distribution was largely accounted for by large (Svedberg flotation rate > 60) very low density lipoproteins and chylomicron remnants. Insulin relations to large postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins exclusively reflected the association between plasma insulin and the fasting plasma concentrations of these lipoprotein species, whereas plasma insulin and late postprandial plasma concentrations of small (Svedberg flotation rate 20-60) chylomicron remnants were related, independently of insulin influences on fasting concentrations. Strong positive relations were found between the late increases in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations after 6 h. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: The degree of insulin sensitivity is a major determinant of postprandial lipaemia in healthy middle-aged men and could add to the regulation of the basal production of large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

Ehrenborg E, Ledmyr HL, Hamsten A, Karpe F. 1999. Functional studies of a common promoter polymorphism in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene (MTP) CIRCULATION, 100 (18), pp. 197-197.

Norén K, Weistrand C, Karpe F. 1999. Distribution of PCB congeners, DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCB and DDE among various fractions of human blood plasma. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 37 (3), pp. 408-414. | Show Abstract | Read more

The concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls (CBs), 1, 1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the methylsulfonyl metabolites of CBs (MeSO(2)-CBs) and DDE (MeSO(2)-DDE) were determined in human plasma samples and in the fractions obtained by ultracentrifugation of plasma into very-low-density (VLDL), low-density (LDL), high-density (HDL) lipoprotein and lipoprotein depleted (LPDP) fractions (containing primarily albumin). The concentrations of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) were determined. The organochlorine compounds were associated with all fractions, but predominantly with the LPDP fraction. On an average 44% of CBs, 61% of MeSO(2)-CBs, 73% of DDE, 77% of MeSO(2)-DDE, and 45% of HCB were distributed in the LPDP fraction. A tendency to greater association of 3-methylsulfonyl substituted than of corresponding 4-methylsulfonyl substituted chlorobiphenyls to the LPDP fraction was noticed. Among the lipoprotein fractions, LDL was the main carrier of HCB, DDE and CBs. MeSO(2)-DDE was predominantly found in HDL and MeSO(2)-CBs were distributed equally among the LDL and HDL fractions. Calculating the concentrations of organochlorine compounds in relation to the content of apoB, the levels were about 10 times higher in VLDL than in LDL.

Skoglund-Andersson C, Tang R, Bond MG, de Faire U, Hamsten A, Karpe F. 1999. LDL particle size distribution is associated with carotid intima-media thickness in healthy 50-year-old men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 19 (10), pp. 2422-2430. | Show Abstract | Read more

Results of cross-sectional and prospective studies have suggested that small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles predispose to coronary heart disease. We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of LDL subfractions and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA), quantified by B-mode ultrasound, in 94 healthy, 50-year-old men, all of whom were homozygous for the apolipoprotein E3 allele. A novel 3% to 7.5% polyacrylamide gradient gel was developed to provide separation of LDL subfractions with high resolution, as was a procedure to quantify plasma concentrations of these LDL subspecies. The LDL particle size distribution pattern obtained by the gradient gel electrophoresis procedure was in good agreement with the one obtained by a well-established, single-spin density gradient ultracentrifugation technique. LDL-II (particle size, 23.5 to 25.0 nm) was the most abundant subfraction, and its plasma concentration correlated closely with the total LDL cholesterol concentration (r=0. 61, P<0.001) but not with CCA IMT (r=-0.13, NS). In contrast, the plasma concentration of the predominant small, dense LDL particle subfraction (LDL-III; particle size, 22.5 to 23.5 nm) correlated strongly with CCA IMT (r=0.42, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, the plasma concentration of the LDL-III subfraction contributed significantly to the variation in CCA IMT (R(2)=0.19). When plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were forced into the multivariate model, 10% of the variation in CCA IMT was still accounted for by the LDL-III subfraction. In summary, use of a novel and sensitive gradient gel electrophoresis method for evaluation of LDL heterogeneity provided the basis for demonstrating an independent relation between the plasma concentration of small LDL and IMT of the CCA in healthy, middle-aged men.

Karpe F. 1999. Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. J Intern Med, 246 (4), pp. 341-355. | Show Abstract | Read more

Postprandial lipids and lipoproteins have been associated with the presence of cardiovascular disease in a large number of case-control studies. Because the metabolic perturbations around the postprandial situation is a key driving force for cholesterol flux between lipoproteins and tissues, together with the augmented generation of potentially atherogenic cholesterol-rich remnant lipoproteins, several hypotheses have been formulated to link excessive lipoproteinaemic response to fat intake with cardiovascular disease. Recent information on the regulation of lipoprotein remnant formation and its relation to atherosclerosis will enable us to test a pertinent clinical question: is there a direct relationship between repeated elevations of postprandial lipoproteins and development of atherosclerosis?

Boquist S, Ruotolo G, Tang R, Björkegren J, Bond MG, de Faire U, Karpe F, Hamsten A. 1999. Alimentary lipemia, postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and common carotid intima-media thickness in healthy, middle-aged men. Circulation, 100 (7), pp. 723-728. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Alimentary lipemia has been associated with coronary heart disease and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). This study was designed to investigate the relations of subclasses of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) with IMT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-six healthy 50-year-old men with an apolipoprotein (apo) E3/E3 genotype underwent an oral fat tolerance test and B-mode carotid ultrasound examination. The apo B-48 and apo B-100 contents of each fraction of TRLs were determined as a measure of chylomicron remnant and VLDL particle concentrations. In the fasting state, LDL cholesterol (P<0.05) and basal proinsulin (P<0. 05) were significantly related to IMT, whereas HDL cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, and insulin were not. In the postprandial state, plasma triglycerides at 1 to 4 hours (P<0.01 at 2 hours), total triglyceride area under the curve (AUC) (P<0.05), incremental triglyceride AUC (P<0.01), and the large VLDL (Sf 60 to 400 apo B-100) concentration at 3 hours (P<0.05) were significantly related to IMT. Multivariate analyses showed that plasma triglycerides at 2 hours, LDL cholesterol, and basal proinsulin were consistently and independently related to IMT when cumulative tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, waist-to-hip circumference ratio, and systolic blood pressure were included as confounders. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide further evidence for postprandial triglyceridemia as an independent risk factor for early atherosclerosis and also suggest that the postprandial triglyceridemia is a better predictor of IMT than particle concentrations of individual TRLs.

Silveira A, Nastase-Mannila M, Karpe F, Boquist S, van't Hooft F, Ehrenborg E, Hamsten A. 1999. Common polymorphisms in the factor VII gene locus influence the basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of activated factor VII THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, pp. 702-703.

Allison BA, Nilsson L, Karpe F, Hamsten A, Eriksson P. 1999. Effects of native, triglyceride-enriched, and oxidatively modified LDL on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 19 (5), pp. 1354-1360. | Show Abstract | Read more

Whereas VLDL has consistently been shown to induce a concentration-dependent increase in the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and liver cells, variable effects have been reported for native and oxidatively modified LDL. In the present study, activation of PAI-1 protein and mRNA expression by native LDL (nLDL), UV-oxidized LDL (uvLDL), and triglyceride (TG)-enriched LDL was studied in HUVECs by using different incubation times and a wide range of lipoprotein concentrations. No significant increase of PAI-1 protein expression was observed after 4 hours of incubation with nLDL or uvLDL. However, PAI-1 protein secretion from HUVECs was markedly enhanced after 18 hours of incubation with uvLDL (200% increase at 10 microg/mL). Stimulation of PAI-1 protein expression in HUVECs by nLDL was seen, however, after increasing the TG content of the LDL particle. LDL enriched in phospholipid had no effect on PAI-1 secretion. PAI-1 mRNA levels on northern blot increased in parallel with the activation of PAI-1 protein expression by native and modified forms of LDL. Low concentrations of TG-enriched LDL (10 microg/mL) and higher concentrations of nLDL and uvLDL (100 microg/mL) were found to increase the binding of a VLDL-inducible transcription factor to the PAI-1 promoter. These results indicate that the TG content of the LDL particle influences PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells. Low concentrations of uvLDL enhanced PAI-1 protein and mRNA expression in the HUVECs after an 18-hour incubation but did not influence the VLDL-inducible transcription factor. This suggests that low levels of oxidized LDL increase PAI-1 expression by a different mechanism than VLDL and TG-enriched LDL.

Karpe F, Boquist S, Larsson A, Hamsten A, Syvanne A. 1999. Remnants of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and atherosclerosis ATHEROSCLEROSIS, 144 pp. 87-87. | Read more

Karpe F, Hellénius ML, Hamsten A. 1999. Differences in postprandial concentrations of very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicron remnants between normotriglyceridemic and hypertriglyceridemic men with and without coronary heart disease. Metabolism, 48 (3), pp. 301-307. | Show Abstract | Read more

It has been suggested that the postprandial elevation of plasma triglycerides is more closely linked to coronary heart disease (CHD) than the fasting triglyceride level. However, the postprandial situation is complex, as hepatogenous triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) particles (apolipoprotein [apo]B-100 and very-low-density lipoprotein [VLDL]) are mixed in the blood with apoB-48-containing lipoproteins secreted from the intestine. To analyze the relative proportion of liver-derived and intestinal apoB-containing TRL in subjects with and without CHD, we performed standardized oral fat-loading tests in young survivors of myocardial infarction, a large proportion of whom are hypertriglyceridemic (HTG), as well as sex- and population-matched healthy control subjects. A special effort was made to recruit healthy HTG subjects as controls for the HTG patients. Fasting plasma triglycerides (3.74+/-1.35 v3.01+/-0.83, NS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and VLDL lipids, and apoB-100 and apoB-48 content at Svedberg flotation rate (Sf) 60-400, Sf 20-60, and Sf 12-20 did not differ between HTG patients (n = 10) and HTG controls (n = 14). Normotriglyceridemic (NTG) patients (n = 15) had higher fasting plasma triglycerides (1.44+/-0.39 v 0.98+/-0.33 mmol/L, P < .05) and LDL cholesterol (4.07+/-0.71 v 3.43+/-0.64, P < .05) than NTG controls (n = 34). The triglyceride elevation was accounted for by a higher level of small VLDL (apoB-100 in the Sf 20-60 fraction, 52+/-17 v29+/-20 mg/L, P < .05). HTG patients responded with clearly elevated plasma triglycerides in the late postprandial phase, ie, 7, 8, and 9 hours after fat intake. Essentially, this was explained by a retention of large VLDL particles, since HTG patients exhibited no major differences in apoB-48 concentrations in the Sf > 400, Sf 60-400, and Sf 20-60 fractions but showed marked differences in the level of apoB-100 at Sf 60-400 (large VLDL) 9 hours after fat intake when compared with HTG controls (101+/-13 v 57+/-5 mg/L, P < .01). NTG patients were characterized by a more rapid increase of large VLDL in the early postprandial state, ie, 3 hours after fat intake, with a mean increase from baseline to 3 hours of 24.1+/-6.7 mg/L for NTG patients and 11.8+/-2.0 mg/L for controls (P < .05). ApoB-48 levels were also slightly higher, but all TRL parameters returned to baseline within 9 hours after fat intake. In conclusion, elevated triglyceride levels in the postprandial state in CHD patients are explained to a large extent by the accumulation of endogenous TRL. This suggests that the postprandial dyslipidemia encountered in CHD is more dependent on a failure of regulation of endogenous TRL versus the exogenous TRL species.

Karpe F, Olivecrona T, Olivecrona G, Samra JS, Summers LK, Humphreys SM, Frayn KN. 1998. Lipoprotein lipase transport in plasma: role of muscle and adipose tissues in regulation of plasma lipoprotein lipase concentrations. J Lipid Res, 39 (12), pp. 2387-2393. | Show Abstract

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is synthesized in tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism such as muscle and adipose tissue. LPL is also found in the circulation, but is mostly lipolytically inactive. The proportion of active circulating LPL increases after a fatty meal. We investigated the release of active and inactive LPL from adipose tissue and muscle in the fasting and postprandial states. Arteriovenous concentration gradients of LPL across adipose tissue and forearm muscle were measured in male subjects before and after a fat-rich meal (n = 7) and before and during infusion of a triacylglycerol emulsion (Intralipid) (n = 6). Plasma LPL activity rose after the meal and more so during Intralipid infusion. Plasma LPL mass (>95% inactive LPL) increased after the meal but decreased after Intralipid infusion. In the fasting state (n = 13) muscle efflux of LPL activity was 0.263 +/- 0.098 mU/min per 100 ml of muscle tissue whereas there was an influx of LPL activity to adipose tissue of 0.085 +/- 0.100 mU/min per 100 g of adipose tissue (P < 0. 02 muscle vs. adipose tissue). Similarly in the postprandial state only muscle released LPL activity. Both tissues released LPL mass. In the fasting state efflux was 17.8 +/- 8.8 ng/min per 100 ml muscle and 55.2 +/- 21.3 ng/min per 100 g of adipose tissue (P < 0. 05 muscle vs. adipose tissue). Release of LPL, either active or inactive, was not correlated with levels of non-esterified fatty acids or plasma triacylglycerol. In conclusion, there is a substantial release of LPL from adipose tissue and muscle, most of which is inactive. A small proportion of active LPL seems to be redistributed from muscle to adipose tissue.

Karpe F, de Faire U, Mercuri M, Bond MG, Hellénius ML, Hamsten A. 1998. Magnitude of alimentary lipemia is related to intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in middle-aged men. Atherosclerosis, 141 (2), pp. 307-314. | Show Abstract | Read more

Fat intake leads to generation of potentially atherogenic triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). To investigate the relationship between early atherosclerotic changes and accumulation of hepatic and intestinal TRL after oral fat intake, an estimate of the intima-media thickness (IMT) was made using ultrasound of the common carotid artery, and postprandial TRL was quantified during a standardized oral fat tolerance test in 30 healthy normo- and hypertriglyceridemic middle-aged men. At base line the expected positive association between the LDL cholesterol level and the IMT of the common carotid artery was observed (r = 0.53, P<0.01). In addition, postprandial plasma triglycerides, in particular those measured late (6 h) after intake of the test meal, correlated positively with the IMT (r = 0.44, P<0.05). Of note, this latter correlation was independent of both the LDL cholesterol and the fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations. In a multivariate analysis, 39% of the total variability for the common carotid IMT were explained by age, LDL cholesterol and the postprandial triglyceride level. In univariate analysis, few statistically significant relations were found between common carotid IMT and postprandial levels of chylomicron remnants, VLDL and VLDL remnants of different particle size, the latter determined by specific measurements of ApoB-48 and ApoB-100 in subfractions of TRL. Therefore, in healthy middle-aged men, elevated postprandial triglyceride levels might identify a metabolic state related to early atherosclerosis.

Ruotolo G, Ericsson CG, Tettamanti C, Karpe F, Grip L, Svane B, Nilsson J, de Faire U, Hamsten A. 1998. Treatment effects on serum lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins and low density lipoprotein particle size and relationships of lipoprotein variables to progression of coronary artery disease in the Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (BECAIT). J Am Coll Cardiol, 32 (6), pp. 1648-1656. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanisms by which bezafibrate retarded the progression of coronary lesions in the Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (BECAIT), we examined the relationships of on-trial lipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions to the angiographic outcome measurements. BACKGROUND: BECAIT, the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized serial angiographic trial of a fibrate compound, showed that progression of focal coronary atherosclerosis in young survivors of myocardial infarction could be retarded by bezafibrate treatment. METHODS: A total of 92 dyslipoproteinemic men who had survived a first myocardial infarction before the age of 45 years were randomly assigned to treatment for 5 years with bezafibrate (200 mg three times daily) or placebo; 81 patients underwent baseline and at least one post-treatment coronary angiography. RESULTS: In addition to the decrease in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol (-53%) and triglyceride (-46%) and plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B (-9%) levels, bezafibrate treatment resulted in a significant increase in high density lipoprotein-3 (HDL3) cholesterol (+9%) level and a shift in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclass distribution toward larger particle species (peak particle diameter +032 nm). The on-trial HDL3 cholesterol and plasma apo B concentrations were found to be independent predictors of the changes in mean minimum lumen diameter (r=-0.23, p < 0.05), and percent (%) stenosis (r = 0.30, p < 0.01), respectively. Decreases in small dense LDL and/or VLDL lipid concentrations were unrelated to disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the effect of bezafibrate on progression of focal coronary atherosclerosis could be at least partly attributed to a rise in HDL3 cholesterol and a decrease in the total number of apo B-containing lipoproteins.

Lundahl B, Leren T, Ose L, Hamsten A, Karpe F. 1998. A common promoter polymorphism affecting transcription of the MTP-gene influences lipoprotein phenotype in familial hypercholesterolaemia ATHEROSCLEROSIS, 141 (1), pp. 182-182.

Andersson C, Hamsten A, Karpe F. 1998. Gene-gene interaction between apoB and apoE in determining plasma levels and heterogeneity of apoB-containing lipoproteins CIRCULATION, 98 (17), pp. 534-534.

Karpe F, Bond GM, Hamsten A. 1998. Remnant-like lipoproteins concentration in plasma is strongly associated with early signs of carotid atherosclerosis in healthy 50-year old men. CIRCULATION, 98 (17), pp. 451-451.

Lundman P, Tornvall P, Eriksson M, Schenck-Gustafsson K, Karpe F. 1998. Triglycerides and postprandial angina - Response CIRCULATION, 98 (17), pp. 1827-1827.

Björkegren J, Karpe F, Milne RW, Hamsten A. 1998. Differences in apolipoprotein and lipid composition between human chylomicron remnants and very low density lipoproteins isolated from fasting and postprandial plasma. J Lipid Res, 39 (7), pp. 1412-1420. | Show Abstract

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) that are modified during alimentary lipemia and their remnants are indicated to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Although recent studies in transgenic and gene knock-out animal models have shed new light on the function of different apolipoproteins (apos) in the metabolism of TRLs and on their respective role in atherogenesis in these models, little is known about the compositional properties of human chylomicron remnants and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). To address this issue, apos E, C-I, C-II, and C-III and lipids (triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol) were measured in Svedberg flotation rate (Sf) 60-400 and Sf 20-60 subfractions of VLDL and chylomicron remnants isolated from fasting and postprandial plasma samples in ten normotriglyceridemic men. VLDL was separated from chylomicron remnants by immunoaffinity chromatography using monoclonal antibodies (4G3 and 5E11) recognizing apoB-100 but not apoB-48 epitopes. The triglyceride, cholesterol and apoC-II contents of large (Sf 60-400) chylomicron remnants were significantly higher compared with large VLDL particles, while the small (Sf 20-60) chylomicron remnants contained significantly more apoC-II molecules but fewer apoC-I molecules than small VLDL. Whereas the apoC-III contents of large chylomicrons decreased, the apoC-III contents of large VLDL increased postprandially. The cholesterol to triglyceride ratio of large VLDL particles increased transiently by 50% in response to the oral fat load, whereas the cholesterol to triglyceride ratio of large chylomicron remnant particles and small TRL remnants increased 50-100% throughout the entire postprandial period. The specific alterations of the apolipoprotein and lipid composition of chylomicron remnants and VLDL particles observed during alimentary lipemia are likely to target these lipoprotein species differently to metabolic routes and to confer both endogenous and exogenous remnant lipoprotein roles in atherogenesis.

Karpe F, Lundahl B, Ehrenborg E, Eriksson P, Hamsten A. 1998. A common functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene influences plasma LDL levels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 18 (5), pp. 756-761. | Show Abstract | Read more

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for the assembly and cellular secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB) -containing lipoproteins from the liver and intestine. The secretion pattern of apoB-containing lipoproteins is likely to influence the VLDL and LDL levels in plasma. By initial opportunistic screening for polymorphic sites in the regulatory region of the MTP gene by gene sequencing in 20 healthy male subjects, a common functional G/T polymorphism was detected 493 bp upstream from the transcriptional start point. There was differential binding of unique nuclear proteins at this site, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The G variant seemed to bind two or three nuclear proteins that do not bind to the T variant. Expression studies with minimal promoter constructs linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter and transfected into HepG2 cells revealed marked enhancement of transcriptional activity with the T variant. The prevalence of the MTP promoter genotypes was investigated in a group of 184 healthy, middle-aged white men; the frequency of homozygosity for the MTP -493 T variant was .06 and the allele frequency of MTP -493T was .25 in the population. These homozygous subjects had a 22% lower LDL cholesterol concentration than did heterozygotes or subjects homozygous for the MTP -493 G variant (2.9+/-0.6 versus 3.7+/-0.8 mmol/L, P<.05). Analysis of apoB and triglyceride contents in VLDL subfractions revealed a markedly changed balance within the VLDL population. Subjects homozygous for the MTP -493 T variant had fewer but more lipid-rich VLDL particles, thereby arguing for an effect of MTP expression on the hepatic secretion of triglyceride-rich, apoB-containing lipoproteins. This common genetic variation of the MTP promoter is likely to have important implications for cardiovascular disease.

Karpe F, Lundahl B, Ehrenborg E, Eriksson P, Hamsten A. 1998. A common functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the MTP gene influences the plasma LDL level ATHEROSCLEROSIS, 138 pp. S3-S3.

Andersson C, Hamsten A, Karpe F. 1998. Gene-gene interaction between apo E and apo B in determining plasma levels of apo B-containing lipoproteins ATHEROSCLEROSIS, 138 pp. S7-S7.

Boquist S, Ruotolo G, Hellénius ML, Danell-Toverud K, Karpe F, Hamsten A. 1998. Effects of a cardioselective beta-blocker on postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, low density lipoprotein particle size and glucose-insulin homeostasis in middle-aged men with modestly increased cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis, 137 (2), pp. 391-400. | Show Abstract | Read more

Beta-adrenergic receptor-blocking agents are commonly used for treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris and arrhythmias and as secondary prevention after myocardial infarction. The modest protection against myocardial infarction conferred by these compounds in primary-preventive studies has suggested that beneficial effects of beta-blockade are counteracted by known adverse influences on lipid and glucose metabolism. As most beta-blockers increase plasma triglycerides and decrease the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was conducted to evaluate whether a 12-week treatment with metoprolol (100 mg o.d.) or placebo affected the metabolism of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in 15 middle-aged men with a modestly increased cardiovascular risk. Metoprolol treatment significantly increased the postprandial responses of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and VLDL remnants to a mixed meal-type of oral fat tolerance test. The effect was particularly prominent for larger (Svedberg flotation rate (Sf) > 400 and Sf 60-400) particle species (P < 0.001 in repeated measures ANOVA), whereas the smaller (Sf 20-60) particles were less affected (P < 0.05). The changes in the postprandial responses of the different VLDL species were mainly related to an effect on the fasting plasma concentrations, with limited or no influences on VLDL catabolism during the postprandial state. In contrast, metoprolol treatment did not significantly influence the postprandial responses of chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants. Notably, the enhanced fasting and postprandial triglyceridaemia during metoprolol treatment was neither accompanied by a rise in fasting or postprandial free fatty acid concentrations, nor by alterations of the glucose and insulin responses to a standard oral glucose challenge. The ensuing shift in the LDL particle size distribution towards smaller particles was limited (fraction small LDL: metoprolol 22.8 +/- 15.7% versus placebo 19.3 +/- 15.0%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, metoprolol treatment primarily enhances fasting and postprandial triglyceridaemia in middle-aged men by increasing the basal hepatic production of VLDL.

Shah PK, Nilsson J, Kaul S, Fishbein MC, Ageland H, Hamsten A, Johansson J, Karpe F, Cercek B. 1998. Effects of recombinant apolipoprotein A-I(Milano) on aortic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation, 97 (8), pp. 780-785. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: We previously reported marked inhibitory effects of recombinant apolipoprotein (apo) A-I(Milano)/phospholipid complex (A-I[Milano]/PC) on neointimal lesions in balloon-injured iliofemoral arteries of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that apo A-I(Milano)/PC would inhibit aortic atherosclerosis in apo E-deficient mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-five apo E-deficient mice fed a high-cholesterol diet were included in the study. Control mice were killed at 20 (n=8) or 25 (n=7) weeks. Treated mice received 18 injections of either 40 mg/kg apo A-I(Milano)/PC (n=15) or PC only (n=5) intravenously every other day from 20 weeks until death at 25 weeks. Aortic atherosclerosis was identified with Sudan IV staining. Lipid and macrophage contents of the aortic sinus plaques were measured after oil-red O and Mac-1 antibody staining, respectively, and quantified with computed morphometry. In control mice, from 20 to 25 weeks, aortic atherosclerosis increased by 59% (11 +/- 1% versus 17 +/- 5% of the aortic surface, P=.002), and lipid content increased by 45% (22 +/- 8% versus 32 +/- 6% of plaque area, P=.02) without a significant change in macrophage content (10.8 +/- 2% versus 13.2 +/- 6%). Compared with 20-week-old untreated control mice, PC only-treated mice at 25 weeks demonstrated a 32% increase in aortic atherosclerosis (11 +/- 1% versus 15 +/- 4%, P=.01) and an increase in lipid content (22 +/- 8% versus 47 +/- 3%, P<.0001) without a change in macrophage content (10.8 +/- 2% versus 11 +/- 2%). In comparison with 20-week-old untreated control mice, 25-week-old apo A-I(Milano)/PC-treated mice demonstrated no increase in aortic atherosclerosis (11 +/- 1% versus 10 +/- 4%, P=NS), a 40% reduction in lipid content (22 +/- 8% versus 13 +/- 8%, P=.01), and a 46% reduction in macrophage content (10.8 +/- 2% versus 5.8 +/- 2.9%; P=.03). Serum cholesterol levels were markedly elevated in all groups and did not change significantly with apo A-I(Milano)/PC or PC only. In vitro, apo A-I(Milano)/PC stimulated cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded FU5AH hepatoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, whereas PC only or PC-free apo A-I(Miano) had no effect. CONCLUSIONS: Recombinant A-I(Milano)/PC prevented progression of aortic atherosclerosis and reduced lipid and macrophage content of plaques in apo E-deficient mice despite severe hypercholesterolemia. Thus, A-I(Milano)/PC may have a role in inhibiting progression and promoting stabilization of atherosclerosis.

Bröijersén A, Karpe F, Hamsten A, Goodall AH, Hjemdahl P. 1998. Alimentary lipemia enhances the membrane expression of platelet P-selectin without affecting other markers of platelet activation. Atherosclerosis, 137 (1), pp. 107-113. | Show Abstract | Read more

The present study was conducted to determine whether alimentary lipemia alters platelet activity in vivo. Normolipidemic volunteers were given a fatty meal and platelet function was assessed before, and 3 and 6 h after the meal. Platelet aggregability and secretion was determined using whole blood flow cytometry (expression of platelet P-selectin and fibrinogen binding), filtragometry ex vivo (reflecting platelet aggregability in vivo) and by measurements of platelet specific products in plasma (beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4). Plasma triglycerides increased from 0.8 (0.6:1.1; median, 25th and 75th percentiles) to 1.7 (1.0:2.3) mmol/l at 3 h and returned to baseline after 6 h (P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA). Apo B-100 and apo B-48 were both markedly increased 3 h postprandially in the Sf 60-400 fraction (large VLDLs, P < 0.001 for both), whereas the Sf 20-60 (small VLDLs) and Sf 12-20 fractions (IDL) did not change. The platelet function assessments revealed that the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin increased by 40% (5%; 64%) after 3 h and by 51% (- 7%; 85%) 6 h postprandially in unstimulated samples (P < 0.05 for both). In samples stimulated by ADP in vitro P-selectin expression increased by 45% (6%; 58%) after 3 h and by 30% (12%; 58%) (P<0.01 for both) after 6 h at 0.1 microM. Platelet P-selectin expression was less influenced at higher ADP concentrations. The plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (approximately 20 ng/ml) and platelet factor 4 (approximately 0.3 ng/ml) were not affected by the fat load. Flow cytometric analyses of fibrinogen binding and filtragometry measurements also failed to reveal any postprandial alterations. The present finding of enhanced platelet P-selectin expression suggests that platelets are mildly sensitized postprandially. Whether this is of importance for thrombus formation and atherosclerosis needs to be studied further.

Björkegren J, Karpe F, Vitols S, Tornvall P, Hamsten A. 1998. Transient triglyceridemia in healthy normolipidemic men increases cellular processing of large very low density lipoproteins by fibroblasts in vitro. J Lipid Res, 39 (2), pp. 423-436. | Show Abstract

Exaggerated and prolonged postprandial triglyceridemia is a characteristic of patients with precocious coronary heart disease. Although large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles accumulate during alimentary lipemia, the biological properties of the postprandial VLDL remain unknown. In the present study, an intravenous infusion of a chylomicron-like emulsion was given to healthy normolipidemic men to examine the effects of transient triglyceridemia in vivo on compositional and cell biological characteristics of VLDL. The postinfusion large(Svedberg flotation rate (Sf) (60-400) VLDL was found to have increased capacity to inhibit low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to the LDL-receptor and a greater ability to suppress the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity of cultured fibroblasts compared to VLDL isolated from fasting plasma. These alterations in cellular interactions were accompanied by increases in the number of apolipoprotein (apo) E, C-I, and C-III molecules per large VLDL particle and loss of apoC-II, compositional changes similar to those observed after an oral fat load. The increase in number of apoE molecules per large VLDL particle correlated positively and significantly with the increase in the capacity of large VLDL to inhibit LDL binding to the LDL receptor (r = 0.76, P = 0.01, n = 10). In contrast, the composition of the small (Sf 20-60) VLDL particles did not change significantly, nor was the LDL receptor-mediated processing of these particles altered consistently. These observations indicate that large VLDL particles that accumulate during alimentary lipemia undergo compositional changes that render them more prone to cellular binding and uptake.

Kearney MT, Cowley AJ, Macdonald IA. 1998. Triglycerides and postprandial angina. Circulation, 98 (17), pp. 1827.

Eriksson P, Nilsson L, Karpe F, Hamsten A. 1998. Very-low-density lipoprotein response element in the promoter region of the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene implicated in the impaired fibrinolysis of hypertriglyceridemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 18 (1), pp. 20-26. | Show Abstract | Read more

Hypertriglyceridemia and impaired fibrinolytic function are linked to coronary heart disease and other atherothrombotic disorders. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may attenuate fibrinolysis by increasing the plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Furthermore, a common 4/5 guanosine (4G/5G) polymorphism in the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene has been indicated to influence plasma PAI-1 activity and to be involved in an allele-specific response to triglycerides. Herein we show by transfection assays that VLDLs induce transcription of the human PAI-1 promoter in endothelial cells. A VLDL response element (VLDLRE) is located to residues -672 to -657 in the promoter region by electromobility shift assay, methylation interference, and DNase I footprinting, and its activity is shown to be influenced by the common 4G/5G polymorphism located adjacent to and upstream of the binding site of a VLDL-inducible transcription factor. These findings may provide a molecular explanation to the link between VLDL and PAI-1 activity elevation in plasma and to the interaction between the 4G/5G polymorphism and plasma triglycerides.

Lundman P, Eriksson M, Schenck-Gustafsson K, Karpe F, Tornvall P. 1997. Transient triglyceridemia decreases vascular reactivity in young, healthy men without risk factors for coronary heart disease. Circulation, 96 (10), pp. 3266-3268. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia is now accepted as a risk factor for coronary heart disease, although the mechanism behind the increased risk is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of triglyceridemia on endothelial function, because impaired endothelial function is considered a marker of atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Flow- and nitroglycerin-induced dilatation of the brachial artery was investigated noninvasively by high-resolution ultrasound technique in seven young, healthy men without risk factors for coronary heart disease. Transient triglyceridemia was induced by infusion of a triglyceride emulsion, Intralipid, which raised free fatty acid concentrations twofold and triglyceride levels fourfold. Flow-induced vasodilatation decreased from 7.1+/-3.0% to 1.6+/-2.6% (P<.0002), whereas nitroglycerin-induced vasodilatation decreased from 20.5+/-5.8% to 11.5+/-3.2% (P<.002) before and after 1 hour of infusion of Intralipid, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Transient triglyceridemia decreases vascular reactivity, presumably by both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent mechanisms.

Karpe F, Humphreys SM, Samra JS, Summers LK, Frayn KN. 1997. Clearance of lipoprotein remnant particles in adipose tissue and muscle in humans. J Lipid Res, 38 (11), pp. 2335-2343. | Show Abstract

A major proportion of triglycerides in plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) are removed in peripheral tissues by lipoprotein lipase, and hypothetically a minor proportion can also be removed by whole-lipoprotein particle uptake. This second removal pathway has not previously been directly demonstrated in humans. Simultaneous blood samples were drawn from arterialized blood, a vein draining the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and a deep antecubital vein of the forearm to provide arterio-venous gradients from blood-draining adipose tissue and muscle in seven male subjects. The men were given a fat-rich mixed meal containing vitamin A and the triglyceride and retinyl palmitate (RP) concentrations were quantified in the plasma. Density gradient ultracentrifugation was used to isolate TRL fractions, in which triglycerides, RP, apoB-48, and apoB-100 were quantified. There was clearance of triglycerides in muscle and adipose tissue and, in addition, removal of RP. By analysis of the TRL subfractions, the RP removal was likely to be confined to the largest chylomicron remnant particles. For the Sf > 400 fraction, the area under curve (AUC) relative to arterial for triglycerides were 79% (66-91%) and 81% (72-89%) in adipose tissue and muscle venous outflow, respectively (each P < 0.02 versus arterial). The corresponding values for RP were 87% (73-101%) and 85% (69-100%), respectively, (each P < 0.05 versus arterial). In the Sf 60-400 fraction there was further uptake of triglycerides, but not of RP. We hypothesize that the periphery could be of importance for removal of the largest chylomicron remnants, as their size might partially exclude them penetrating the fenestrated hepatic sinusoidal endothelium to reach the hepatic chylomicron remnant receptors.

Bjorkegren J, Karpe F, Tornvall P, Hamsten A. 1997. Postprandial very low density lipoproteins: Composition and cellular interactions ATHEROSCLEROSIS, 134 (1-2), pp. 337-337. | Read more

Karpe F, Olivecrona T, Hamsten A, Hultin M. 1997. Chylomicron/chylomicron remnant turnover in humans: evidence for margination of chylomicrons and poor conversion of larger to smaller chylomicron remnants. J Lipid Res, 38 (5), pp. 949-961. | Show Abstract

The size of cholesterol-rich lipoprotein particles is a strong determinant of whether they may be deposited in the arterial wall and by this become potentially atherogenic. This study deals with the in vivo transformation of larger-sized chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants to smaller-sized remnants. Twelve healthy men aged 22 to 45 years were given a fatty meal to which retinyl palmitate (RP) had been added. Plasmapheresis was performed 4 1/2 h after meal intake to isolate approximately 400 ml plasma. The RP-rich plasma was re-injected to the subject 24 h later. The RP content was determined in whole plasma and in Svedberg flotation rate fractions (Sf) > 400, Sf 60-400 and Sf 20-60. A compartmental model was developed for the kinetic analysis. Lipoprotein fractions showed minimal signs of aggregation, thus arguing for well-preserved postprandial lipoproteins. Approximately a fourth [23% (4-68%)] of the RP-containing lipoproteins in the Sf > 400 pool was converted to smaller species (Sf 60-400). Conversion of material from the Sf 60-400 to the Sf 20-60 fraction could not be detected. In a second study a large bolus dose of a triglyceride emulsion (Intralipid) was injected to subjects shortly after the RP-labeled plasma to investigate the endothelial binding of the chylomicron/chylomicron remnants. RP material in the Sf > 400 fraction rapidly returned to plasma, arguing for margination of chylomicrons, whereas the corresponding effect was minimal in the Sf 60-400 and Sf 20-60 fractions. The formation of small chylomicron remnants from the larger chylomicron/chylomicron remnant species is limited and large chylomicron/chylomicron remnants are not evenly distributed in plasma, rather they show signs of being marginated to the vascular endothelium.

Bergman A, Sundin A, Karpe F, Magnusson A. 1997. CT with the hepatocyte-specific contrast medium FP 736-04 in an experimental model of liver steatosis. Acta Radiol, 38 (3), pp. 405-409. | Show Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate whether liver uptake of the iodinated hepatocyte-specific lipid emulsion FP 736-04 is altered by fatty infiltration of the liver. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fatty infiltration of the liver was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by an intraperitoneal injection of L-ethionine preceded by 15 h of food withdrawal. CT of the liver was performed before and 24 h after the administration of L-ethionine and, in addition at the latter time point, after an i.v. injection of 1.0 ml/kg b.w. of FP 736-04. A control group was subjected to the same CT examination protocol. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of L-ethionine caused liver steatosis, as established by liver triglyceride analysis, leading to a significant decrease in the liver attenuation, from 69.2 +/- 2.4 to 27.8 +/- 12.0 HU. The uptake of FP 736-04 by the fatty liver was significantly reduced, yielding a maximum enhancement of 22.3 +/- 7.9 HU as compared to a value of 32.3 +/- 5.0 HU in the control group. CONCLUSION: Enhancement by FP 736-04 was reduced in the steatotic liver compared with the normal liver. It remains to be established whether this degree of enhancement is sufficient for reliable lesion detection.

Björkegren J, Hamsten A, Milne RW, Karpe F. 1997. Alterations of VLDL composition during alimentary lipemia. J Lipid Res, 38 (2), pp. 301-314. | Show Abstract

Apoliprotein (apo) B-100-containing very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles secreted from the liver accumulate in plasma during alimentary lipemia. To determine whether changes of VLDL composition occur in the postprandial state that may render these lipoproteins more atherogenic, apoE, C-I, C-II, and C-III, and lipids (triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol) were measured in Svedberg flotation (Sf) 60-400 (large) and Sf 20-60 (small) VLDL before and after an oral fat load. Ten normotriglyceridemic (NTG) and three hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) healthy men were given a fat-rich mixed meal (1,000 kCal with 60.2 E% from fat). Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation from plasma samples obtained before (fasting) and at 2-h intervals after the meal. VLDL was then separated from chylomicrons and their remnants by immunoaffinity chromatography using monoclonal antibodies 4G3 and 5E11, recognizing apoB-100, but not apoB-48 epitopes. Large and small VLDL isolated from the NTG group were enriched with apoE and C-I, and cholesterol, but depleted of apoC-II in the postprandial state, whereas the apoC-III, triglyceride, and phospholipid contents were essentially unchanged. The compositional changes of VLDL in HTG subjects were similar but more pronounced compared with NTG subjects. We conclude that postprandial lipemia in healthy men induces transient compositional alterations of VLDL that link these lipoprotein species to the formation of atherosclerosis.

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Karpe F. 1997. Effects of diet on postprandial lipaemia: A suggestion for methodological standardization NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, 7 (1), pp. 44-55. | Show Abstract

The dietary management of hyperlipoproteinaemia is one of the primary strategies in preventing coronary heart disease (CHD). The effect of reduced calory intake on fasting blood lipids and apolipoproteins by exchanging fat for carbohydrate and replacing saturated dietary fats with vegetable or marine oils are well-documented. The nutritional implications on postprandial triacylglycerolaemia have recently been reviewed (1) and the specific role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lowering fasting plasma lipids and apolipoproteins has recently been reviewed by Lichtenstein (2). Considerably less is known about diet as a means of modulating postprandial lipoprotein metabolism, which to some extent depends on the fact that pertinent studies have used a variety of methods to provoke the system, ie the composition and size of test meals. As a further complication there is no consensus as to how quantification of postprandial lipids and apolipoproteins should be carried out (3). The present review deals with the effects of diet on postprandial lipaemia and its relevance for the development of CHD. ©1997, Medikal Press.

Tornvall P, Karpe F, Proudler A, Båvenholm P, Landou C, Olivecrona T, Hamsten A. 1996. High-density lipoprotein: relations to metabolic parameters and severity of coronary artery disease. Metabolism, 45 (11), pp. 1375-1382. | Show Abstract | Read more

The regulation of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level by the joint influence of plasma lipoprotein lipids, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic lipase (HL), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), oral glucose tolerance, and postload plasma insulin and proinsulin levels was investigated in young postinfarction patients and healthy population-based control subjects. In addition, the association between HDL cholesterol and the number and severity of coronary stenoses previously reported in this cohort of young postinfarction patients was further investigated by analyzing the determinants and angiographic relations of HDL subclasses measured by gradient gel electrophoresis. The following parameters showed significant univariate relations with HDL cholesterol level in the patient group: very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) triglyceride, and postload plasma insulin concentrations, preheparin plasma LPL mass, and postheparin plasma HL activity. In the control group, significant correlations with HDL cholesterol concentration in addition to those noted among the patients were found for body mass index (BMI), LDL cholesterol level, postload plasma intact proinsulin concentration, and LPL activity in postheparin plasma. In contrast to the patients, no significant relations were noted for postload plasma insulin level and preheparin plasma LPL mass. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that 42% of the variability of HDL cholesterol in the patients could be accounted for by VLDL cholesterol concentration (29%), LDL triglyceride level (7%), and postheparin plasma HL activity (8%), whereas the corresponding figure in controls was 35% (VLDL cholesterol concentration [9%] and postheparin plasma HL activity [26%]. The strength of the relationships of HDL cholesterol and HDL subclasses to the coronary stenosis score was similar and statistically significant (r = .25 to .36). When the metabolic parameters that correlated with HDL cholesterol and HDL subclass concentrations in univariate analysis were used as covariates, all relations to the coronary stenosis score disappeared. This clearly indicates that the influence of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipolytic enzymes needs to be considered when assessing the association between HDL cholesterol and coronary artery disease (CAD).

Silveira A, Karpe F, Johnsson H, Bauer KA, Hamsten A. 1996. In vivo demonstration in humans that large postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins activate coagulation factor VII through the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 16 (11), pp. 1333-1339. | Show Abstract | Read more

In vitro studies in purified plasma systems have suggested that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins, and their remnants promote activation of factor VII through activated factor XII (XIIa) and the intrinsic coagulation pathway. We specifically examined the roles of factors XII, XI, and IX in activation of factor VII during alimentary lipemia in vivo in humans and addressed the issue of whether generation of activated factor VII (VIIa) is accompanied by increased thrombin production. For this purpose XIIa, factor IX activation peptide (IXP), VIIa, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) were determined in plasma samples taken before and 3, 6, and 9 hours after intake of a mixed meal type of oral fat load in 24 healthy men The VIIa response to fat intake was also determined in 7 patients with single coagulation-factor deficiency, of whom 2 were deficient in factor XII, 2 in factor XI, and 3 in factor IX. Postprandial activation of factors IX and VII occurred in the healthy individuals, whereas the plasma levels of XIIa did not change in response to the test meal. Of note, plasma concentrations of F1 + 2 were unaltered during alimentary lipemia, and TAT levels showed a small decrease (P < .05) in the 3-hour sample compared with the fasting level, indicating that thrombin generation is not stimulated in the postprandial state, despite the generation of activated factor IX (IXa) and VIIa. Factor VIIa increased in the postprandial period in the 2 factor XII-deficient patients who underwent the oral fat tolerance test but appeared to remain unchanged in the factor XI- and factor IX-deficient patients. Therefore, the current concept that activation of factor XII plays a pivotal role in initiating the sequence of events linking postprandial lipemia to activation of factor VII is contradicted by the present study. Whether activation of factor XI by triglyceride rich lipoproteins initiates these reactions needs to be demonstrated in future studies.

Juntti-Berggren L, Pigon J, Karpe F, Hamsten A, Gutniak M, Vignati L, Efendic S. 1996. The antidiabetogenic effect of GLP-1 is maintained during a 7-day treatment period and improves diabetic dyslipoproteinemia in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care, 19 (11), pp. 1200-1206. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term antidiabetogenic effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its influence on diabetic dyslipoproteinemia, patients with NIDDM were treated with GLP-1 subcutaneously for 1 week. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twelve patients participated in the study. The 1st week of the study, all of them were on intensive insulin treatment and from day 8, four were randomized to a control group continuing with insulin, and eight to a treatment group where GLP-1 was given at meals together with regular insulin from day 8 to 12. On days 13 and 14, they were only given GLP-1 at meals. NPH insulin at bedtime was given throughout the study. RESULTS: In the GLP-1-treated patients, the doses of regular insulin, given to keep a satisfactory blood glucose control, were reduced compared with treatment with insulin only. GLP-1 virtually inhibited the early increase in blood glucose after the meals, whereas an increase of approximately 2 mmol was seen during an optimized insulin treatment. In agreement with the short half-life of the peptide, 2-h postprandial plasma insulin levels were significantly decreased both at day 12 and 14, suggesting that there was not enough GLP-1 left to stimulate endogenous insulin release and compensate for the decrease in the dose of exogenous insulin. Therefore, the effect of GLP-1 was lost before the next meal, resulting in increased preprandial blood glucose values at lunch and dinner. The concentration of VLDL triglycerides decreased already during the 1st week. This decrease persisted during the 2nd week when GLP-1 was included in the treatment. No changes were observed in the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol. The LDL particle diameter increased from a mean of 22.3 to 22.6 nm (P < 0.01) in response to insulin treatment. A further increment to 22.9 nm (P < 0.05) was seen after GLP-1 treatment. The LDL particle size did not change in the control group. Lipoprotein lipase activity was decreased by 27% and hepatic lipase was reduced by 13% in the GLP-1-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm the antidiabetogenic effect of GLP-1 in NIDDM patients. This effect was maintained during 7 days, which implies that the patients did not develop tolerance during this treatment period. Intensive insulin treatment, leading to normotriglyceridemia, increased the mean LDL particle diameter, which is likely to lower the risk of future coronary heart disease in patients with NIDDM. Furthermore, an additive effect of GLP-1 is indicated. Hence, this study gives additional evidence that GLP-1 may be useful as an agent for treating NIDDM.

Fatah K, Silveira A, Tornvall P, Karpe F, Blombäck M, Hamsten A. 1996. Proneness to formation of tight and rigid fibrin gel structures in men with myocardial infarction at a young age. Thromb Haemost, 76 (4), pp. 535-540. | Show Abstract

The native fibrin gel structure formed in vitro from plasma samples was examined by liquid permeation of hydrated fibrin gel networks in 38 unselected men who had suffered a myocardial infarction before the age of 45 years and in 88 age-matched population-based control men. Both the fibrin gel porosity (permeability coefficient, Ks) and the calculated fiber mass-length ratio varied considerably within the two groups, but were generally lower in the patients. Ks was 8.3 +/- 5.2 cm2 x 10(9) (mean +/- SD) in the patient group and 12.5 +/- 5.7 cm2 x 10(9) among controls (p < 0.001). The corresponding figures for fiber mass-length ratio were 13.1 +/- 7.7 and 16.5 +/- 7.5 Dalton/ cm x 10(-13), respectively (p < 0.01). Around 50% of the patients had Ks values below the 10th percentile of the control group. A strong inverse correlation was seen between plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity and Ks (r = -0.603, p < 0.001) or fiber mass-length ratio (r = -0.565, p < 0.001) in the patient group. Corresponding weaker associations of PAI-1 with fibrin gel properties were also present in the control group. In addition, inverse relationships of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride concentrations to Ks (r = -0.362, p < 0.001) and fiber mass-length ratio (r = -0.283, p < 0.01) were found among the controls. Proneness to formation of tight and rigid fibrin gel networks with abnormal architecture in vitro is in vivo associated with myocardial infarction at a young age. Impaired fibrinolytic function secondary to a raised plasma PAI-1 activity level is associated with abnormal fibrin gel structure.

Tornvall P, Båvenholm P, Hellénius ML, Karpe F, Regnström J, de Faire U. 1996. A decrease in cardiovascular risk factors in healthy 40-year-old Swedish men between 1980-1983 and 1991-1992. J Cardiovasc Risk, 3 (4), pp. 379-383. | Show Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors were compared between two samples of urban middle-aged healthy men investigated in 1980-1983 (n = 106) and 1991-1992 (n = 118), respectively. METHODS: All subjects, who served as controls in an ongoing study on mechanisms behind myocardial infarction, were randomly selected from a register that contains all the inhabitants (1.65 million) in the Stockholm Metropolitan Area. The study programme included recordings of weight, height, smoking habits, blood pressure and blood sampling. Blood and lipoprotein lipid levels, glucose concentrations before and during an oral glucose tolerance test and fibrinogen levels were determined. RESULTS: The 1991-1992 sample had lower systolic blood pressure and lower concentrations of total blood cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and fibrinogen than the 1980-1983 sample. The lower total blood cholesterol level in the 1991-1992 sample was due to a decrease in low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, a tendency was seen towards a decrease in prevalence of smoking in the latter sample. No differences were noted in body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance or total triglycerides between the two samples.

Karpe F. 1996. Atherosclerosis: cell biology and lipoproteins. Curr Opin Lipidol, 7 (2), pp. U65-U70.

Bjorkegren J, Packard CJ, Hamsten A, Bedford D, Caslake M, Foster L, Shepherd J, Stewart P, Karpe F. 1996. Accumulation of large very low density lipoprotein in plasma during intravenous infusion of a chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion reflects competition for a common lipolytic pathway. J Lipid Res, 37 (1), pp. 76-86. | Show Abstract

Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are produced in the liver and contain apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 and endogenous lipids. By contrast, ingestion of fat leads to formation of chylomicrons containing apoB-48 secreted from the intestine. In this study, a 60-min intravenous infusion of a chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion was given to healthy young men to examine whether competition between chylomicrons and VLDL for the same lipolytic pathway explains the increase in VLDL seen after meals. The responses of two major VLDL subfractions were determined by measuring the concentrations of apoB-100 in fractions of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins with Svedberg flotation rates of 60-400 (large VLDL) and 20-60 (small VLDL) that were separated from plasma by density gradient ultracentrifugation. A threefold elevation in plasma triglycerides was observed during the infusion together with a consistent linear increase of large VLDL. The rate at which large VLDL accumulated in plasma differed markedly among individuals and was not enhanced by doubling of the infusion rate. The response of small VLDL was more heterogeneous; however, a decrease was seen in most subjects. The combined pattern for the two VLDL species is what would be expected if large VLDL particles are the precursors of smaller VLDL species and if lipolysis of large VLDL is inhibited through competition from the triglyceride emulsion. The extent to which the triglyceride emulsion inhibited the lipolysis of VLDL and/or influenced the synthesis rate of large VLDL was estimated from simultaneous stable isotope studies. The emulsion caused a 75-90% block of the conversion of large VLDL apoB to small VLDL apoB and there was no sign of enhanced synthesis of large VLDL after infusion of the triglyceride emulsion. The corollary of these findings is that chylomicrons and their remnants impede the normal lipolytic degradation of VLDL and could thereby be indirectly implicated in the generation of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins.

Karpe F, Hamsten A, Uffelman K, Steiner G. 1996. Apolipoprotein B-48. Methods Enzymol, 263 pp. 95-104.

Eriksson P, Nllsson L, Karpe F, Hamsten A. 1996. A vldl response element in the promoter region of the human pai-1 gene implicated in the impaired fibrinolysis of hypertriglyceridaemia Fibrinolysis, 10 (SUPPL. 3), pp. 92. | Show Abstract

Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity is a common finding in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly in young post-infarction patients with hypertriglyceridaemia, and is associated with recurrence of cardiovascular events. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to determine plasma PAI-1 activity. A striking feature of PAI-1 is its positive association with the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycéride concentration. In the present study, we support the notion that a common 4G/5G polymorphic region in the PAI-1 promoter is involved in an allele-specific response to triglycérides. The slope of the regression line was steeper among individuals who were homozygous for the 4G allele as compared to individuals who were homozygous for the 5G allele. Transfection and DMA binding studies showed that the two proteins that previously been shown to bind to the 4G and 5G sequences (Eriksson et al. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 92, 1851-1855), are not directly involved in an activation of the PAI-1 promoter mediated by VLDL. However, by transfection assay, VLDL was shown to induce transcription of the PAI-1 promoter in HUVEC:s. Maximum induction was obtained at 0.075 mg VLDL/ml culture medium. A promoter construct containing the 4G allele showed a slightly higher promoter activity in response to VLDL (3.8 fold induction) than did the promoter containing the 5G allele (2.3 fold induction). To localize the VLDL-response element, transfection studies with promoter deletions together with mobility shift assay and footprinting studies were performed. VLDL-induction of PAI-1 in endothelial cells was found to be caused by transcriptional activation mediated by a response element in the PAI-1 promoter located downstream and adjacent to the 4G/5G polymorphic site. Competitive binding of the factors binding to the polymorphic 4G/5G site and the VLDL induced factor could explain the allele specific response.

Båvenholm P, Karpe F, Proudler A, Tornvall P, Crook D, Hamsten A. 1995. Association of insulin and insulin propeptides with an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. Metabolism, 44 (11), pp. 1481-1488. | Show Abstract | Read more

A characteristic lipoprotein phenotype, including hypertriglyceridemia, a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, and a predominance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, is linked to insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Individuals with these characteristics are supposed to be at increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). To address this issue further, relations between basal and postload glucose, insulin and insulin propeptide concentrations and subfractions of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins were examined in 62 consecutive Swedish nondiabetic men who had experienced a first myocardial infarction before the age of 45. A total of 41 age-matched, population-based healthy men were investigated as controls. Highly specific immunoradiometric assays were used for measuring intact proinsulin and des 31,32proinsulin levels. In all, 39% of the patients were found to be glucose-intolerant, and basal and postload hyper(pro)insulinemia were characteristic features irrespective of glucose tolerance category. Hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) lipoprotein phenotypes with a low HDL cholesterol concentration dominated among the patients, and hyperinsulinemia was linked to hypertriglyceridemia and putatively atherogenic lipoprotein traits, such as increased particle numbers of small very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) and triglyceride enrichment of LDL. The corollary of these findings is that insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of young postinfarction patients and is accompanied by a complex atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, new components of which are an abundance of small cholesteryl ester-rich VLDL and an elevated LDL triglyceride concentration.

Tornvall P, Olivecrona G, Karpe F, Hamsten A, Olivecrona T. 1995. Lipoprotein lipase mass and activity in plasma and their increase after heparin are separate parameters with different relations to plasma lipoproteins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 15 (8), pp. 1086-1093. | Show Abstract | Read more

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and mass in plasma and their increase after heparin administration were measured in 61 men who had suffered myocardial infarction before the age of 45 years and in 69 population-based age- and sex-matched control subjects without coronary heart disease to study the relations between these parameters in plasma and their correlations with plasma lipoproteins in subjects with a wide range of lipoprotein and LPL levels. There was a relatively large amount of LPL protein compared with LPL activity in preheparin plasma, indicating that the majority of circulating LPL is catalytically inactive. LPL mass and activity in postheparin plasma (postheparin minus preheparin values) were highly correlated, and the calculated mean specific activity (0.35 mU/ng) was in the range expected for catalytically active LPL. Hence, heparin releases mainly active LPL. The four LPL parameters (mass and activity in plasma and their increase after heparin administration) were not related to each other, except for postheparin plasma LPL mass and activity, and they showed different correlations with plasma lipoprotein lipid concentrations. There was a strong positive correlation between LPL mass in preheparin plasma and the HDL cholesterol level as well as weak negative relations to VLDL triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in the patients. In contrast, preheparin LPL activity showed no correlation with the HDL cholesterol level but weak positive relations to VLDL triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in the control subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Peacock RE, Karpe F, Talmud PJ, Hamsten A, Humphries SE. 1995. Common variation in the gene for apolipoprotein B modulates postprandial lipoprotein metabolism: a hypothesis generating study. Atherosclerosis, 116 (1), pp. 135-145. | Show Abstract | Read more

We have carried out a pilot study to examine the influence on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein metabolism of common genetic variation in the gene coding for apolipoprotein (apo) B, in a previously described group of 30 individuals who had survived a myocardial infarction (MI) before the age of 45 (normo (NTG)- and hypertriglyceridaemic (HTG) patients) and 11 age-matched healthy individuals. Postprandial lipid or lipoprotein levels were examined by genotypes in the three groups separately and after adjustment for fasting triglycerides (TG) in the whole group combined. For the signal peptide polymorphism in the apo B gene, individuals with one or more SP-24 alleles had a 38% smaller mean area under curve (AUC) (P = 0.06) for postprandial large chylomicron remnants and a 29% smaller mean AUC (P = 0.01) for large very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) compared to individuals homozygous for the wild type SP-27 allele. Previously in this patient group, small chylomicron remnants (apo B-48 levels in the Sf 20-60 range) were found to relate significantly and positively to progression of coronary atherosclerosis suggesting that these lipoproteins are implicated in progression of atherosclerosis. For the apo B Val591-Ala polymorphism (Ag a1/d), individuals homozygous for the V591 allele had a 33% greater AUC for Sf 20-60 postprandial triglycerides (P = 0.006), with higher postprandial levels of both apo B-48- and apo B-100-containing lipoproteins in this fraction. This pilot study gives insight into the mechanisms of the previously reported associations between polymorphisms in the apo B gene and fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins.

Karpe F, Hultin M. 1995. Endogenous triglyceride-rich lipoproteins accumulate in rat plasma when competing with a chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion for a common lipolytic pathway. J Lipid Res, 36 (7), pp. 1557-1566. | Show Abstract

The rat liver secretes very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) containing either apoB-100 or apoB-48. After oral fat intake, chylomicrons containing apoB-48 and endogenously synthesized VLDL are mixed in the blood and the triglyceride clearance from these triglyceride-rich lipoprotein species compete for the same lipolytic pathway, i.e., lipoprotein lipase. A situation mimicking alimentary lipemia was induced by a short-term intravenous primed infusion of a chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion to fed and fasted rats. The plasma concentration of apoB-100 and apoB-48 was monitored in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein subfractions after separation with density gradient ultracentrifugation by analytical SDS-PAGE. The net liver secretory output of VLDL was quantified by lipolytic blockade induced by Triton WR 1339. The chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion induced a linear increase of large VLDL (Sf 60-400 subfraction containing both apoB-100 and apoB-48), almost to the same extent as that induced by Triton. The clearance of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and both lipolysis and clearance of intravenously injected labeled rat chylomicrons was efficiently inhibited by the emulsion but not so complete as for fasting VLDL. The linearity of the VLDL increase and the very early response in the Intralipid-treated rats suggest that enhanced synthesis of VLDL is not a major cause for the accumulation. Rather, the present data indicate that a high plasma concentration of a chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion competes efficiently with liver-derived VLDL for the same lipolytic pathway, which leads to accumulation in plasma of endogenous VLDL in the postprandial state.

Karpe F, Hamsten A. 1995. Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol, 6 (3), pp. 123-129. | Show Abstract | Read more

The metabolism of chylomicrons and their remnants is a highly facilitated route to distribute energy from the diet for storage in adipose tissue or immediate use in the muscles. It has been proposed that chylomicron remnants are atherogenic, and a delayed clearance of chylomicron remnants seems to be associated with compositional abnormalities of other cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. Furthermore, the plasma concentration of chylomicron remnants is very low compared with all other major lipoprotein species. These arguments suggest that the metabolism of chylomicrons may not be directly implicated in atherogenesis, but it may instead enhance the atherogenicity of endogenous lipoproteins. This review critically examines the current literature in this field.

Karpe F, Bell M, Björkegren J, Hamsten A. 1995. Quantification of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in healthy men by retinyl ester labeling and simultaneous measurement of apolipoproteins B-48 and B-100. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 15 (2), pp. 199-207. | Show Abstract | Read more

The metabolism of chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and their remnants in the postprandial state was studied in normolipidemic healthy men by measuring apoB-48 and apoB-100 and retinyl palmitate (RP) in fractions of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins after a mixed meal type of oral fat load supplemented with vitamin A. ApoB-48 was present at low concentrations in the fasting plasma samples in most subjects and increased in response to the test meal in Svedberg's flotation rate (Sf) > 20 lipoprotein fractions. Concomitantly, the level of Sf 60 to 400 apoB-100 (large VLDL) had doubled at 3 hours and returned to baseline at 9 hours. The number of apoB-48-containing lipoprotein particles did not exceed 20% of the total number of apoB-containing lipoproteins contained in Sf 12 to 400 fractions at any time point after fat intake. The peak plasma level of RP was delayed compared with the peak plasma concentration of apoB-48, suggesting that retinyl ester labeling of chylomicrons is questionable as a means of quantifying postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins of intestinal origin. Approximately 2000 and 4000 RP molecules were carried in each chylomicron particle in the 3- and 6-hour samples, respectively, in contrast to the remnant fractions in which 100 to 600 RP molecules were found for each lipoprotein particle. The limited RP exchange between lipoprotein particles indicates that the smaller intestinal lipoproteins do not originate primarily from larger Sf > 400 chylomicron particles but instead are secreted directly into the Sf 20 to 400 fraction and subsequently converted to smaller chylomicron remnants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Lemne C, Hamsten A, Karpe F, Nilsson-Ehle P, de Faire U. 1994. Dyslipoproteinemic changes in borderline hypertension. Hypertension, 24 (5), pp. 605-610. | Show Abstract | Read more

The present study examined plasma lipoprotein, lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and insulin levels in men with borderline hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 85 to 94 mm Hg) compared with age-matched normotensive control subjects (diastolic blood pressure less than or equal to 80 mm Hg, n = 75 + 75). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses were determined in a subset (n = 45 + 45). While total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar, levels of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (0.46 versus 0.41 mmol/L, P = .027, and 1.0 versus 0.85 mmol/L, P = .031) and total triglycerides (1.53 versus 1.33 mmol/L, P = .009) were elevated and HDL cholesterol was reduced in the borderline group compared with the normotensive group (1.17 versus 1.26 mmol/L, P = .043). The HDL subclass HDL2b concentration was lower (0.16 versus 0.24 mmol/L, P = .006), while HDL3b and HDL3c concentrations were higher in the borderline group (0.38 versus 0.32 mmol/L, P = .016, and 0.19 versus 0.16 mmol/L, P = .042). Significantly higher activities of hepatic lipase in the borderline group (282 versus 232 mU/mL, P = .024) and significant correlations between lipoprotein lipase activity and VLDL and HDL concentrations suggest an involvement of these enzymes in the development of these differences. When adjusted for body mass index or insulin level, all differences disappeared, except for HDL3b and HDL3c concentrations, which remained significantly elevated. These results indicate that dyslipoproteinemic changes are present in early hypertension. Although most of these changes are related to obesity, alterations in HDL profile were not explained by influences of body mass index and insulin.

Silveira A, Green F, Karpe F, Blombäck M, Humphries S, Hamsten A. 1994. Elevated levels of factor VII activity in the postprandial state: effect of the factor VII Arg-Gln polymorphism. Thromb Haemost, 72 (5), pp. 734-739. | Show Abstract

A genetic polymorphism (Arg/Gln353) of coagulation factor VII was recently identified and shown to be associated with differences in basal factor VII coagulant activity. Postprandial lipaemia seems to exert an acute but evanescent effect on the activity of factor VII, and the influence of the Arg/Gln353 polymorphism on factor VII activation during postprandial lipaemia was therefore studied in male post-infarction patients [age 48.8 +/- 3.3 years (mean +/- SD)] with Arg/Arg (n = 23) and Arg/Gln (n = 8) genotypes. Factor VII antigen (VIIag) and activity along with plasma lipoproteins were determined before and after intake of a mixed meal-type of oral fat load. Patients with the Arg/Gln genotype had basal VIIag and activated factor VII (VIIa) levels 75% and 48%, respectively, of those of patients homozygous for the Arg allele. In absolute terms, VIIa increased more in homozygotes for the Arg allele (delta 0-6 h VIIa 1.76 +/- 1.48 ng/ml) than in heterozygotes (0.60 +/- 0.27 ng/ml) in response to fat intake, but the percentage increase in VIIa molecules did not differ significantly between subjects with Arg/Arg and Arg/Gln genotypes (37 +/- 32% versus 27 +/- 15%). This suggests that the influence of the Arg/Gln polymorphism on factor VII activity is mainly accounted for by differences in the basal factor VII protein level between genotypes. Since most of our lives are spent in the postprandial state, possession of the factor VII-Gln353 allele is likely to confer protection against coronary heart disease by reducing the amount of VIIa produced in response to fat intake.

Hamsten A, Eriksson P, Karpe F, Silveira A. 1994. Relationships of thrombosis and fibrinolysis to atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol, 5 (5), pp. 382-389. | Show Abstract

The importance of the haemostatic system in predisposing to or precipitating coronary heart disease has gained increasing recognition. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms resulting in hypercoagulability and impaired fibrinolytic function. Emphasis is placed on the role of dyslipoproteinaemia and insulin resistance.

Karpe F, Hamsten A. 1994. Determination of apolipoproteins B-48 and B-100 in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by analytical SDS-PAGE. J Lipid Res, 35 (7), pp. 1311-1317. | Show Abstract

The present work describes a procedure for determining apolipoproteins (apo) B-100 and B-48 in subfractions of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with Coomassie staining. The chromogenicity of the two apoB species was found to be almost equal, and independent of lipoprotein particle size. Both proteins were sensitive to overloading of the gel, which resulted in low dye uptake. This was particularly evident for apoB-48. The precision of this analytical SDS-PAGE-based procedure to determine the plasma concentrations of apoB-100 and B-48 in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins was found to be appreciably low (coefficients of variation ranging between 3.1 and 14.1%).

Moor E, Hamsten A, Karpe F, Båvenholm P, Blombäck M, Silveira A. 1994. Relationship of tissue factor pathway inhibitor activity to plasma lipoproteins and myocardial infarction at a young age. Thromb Haemost, 71 (6), pp. 707-712. | Show Abstract

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) activity was quantified in two cohorts of young male post-infarction patients and in population-based control subjects to explore the relationships between TFPI activity and plasma lipoproteins and to address the issue of coordinate regulation of factor VII and TFPI in hyperlipidaemia and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Participants were investigated in the fasting state and after an oral fat load. Basal TFPI activity and factor VII antigen (VIIag) levels were found to be increased in the patients (TFPI activity 1.25 +/- 0.23 vs 1.17 +/- 0.20 U/ml, p < 0.05; VIIag 537.7 +/- 127.7 vs 479.4 +/- 93.4 ng/ml, p < 0.001). The parallel increase was accounted for by patients with hypertriglyceridaemic lipoprotein phenotypes. In contrast, the level of activated factor VII (VIIa) neither differed significantly between patients and controls, nor between patients with different lipoprotein phenotypes. The elevated TFPI activity in the patients was closely associated with the plasma level of dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles (r = 0.46, p < 0.001) and with the plasma concentration of the small, dense high density lipoprotein (HDL) subspecies HDL3b (r = 0.34, p < 0.01).

Karpe F, Steiner G, Uffelman K, Olivecrona T, Hamsten A. 1994. Postprandial lipoproteins and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, 106 (1), pp. 83-97. | Show Abstract | Read more

The relations between triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, alimentary lipaemia and coronary heart disease (CHD) have remained obscure and much debated. We studied the basal and postprandial plasma levels of chylomicron remnants and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) of varying particle size in 32 male postinfarction patients (mean (S.D.) age 48.8 (3.2) years) and in 10 age-matched control men. The selective quantification of postprandial intestinal and hepatic lipoproteins was accomplished by determining apolipoproteins B-48 and B-100 in lipoprotein subfractions of Svedberg flotation (Sf) rates > 12 before and 3, 6 and 12 h after an oral fat load. Since all patients had undergone two coronary angiographies with an intervening time interval of around 5 years, lipoprotein fractions were examined in relation to the global severity as well as the rate of progression of coronary lesions. The postprandial plasma levels of small chylomicron remnants (Sf 20-60 apolipoprotein B-48) were found to relate distinctly to the rate of progression of coronary lesions between the angiographies (r = 0.51, P = 0.01). Adjustment for the possible confounding effect of the HDL cholesterol and dense LDL apolipoprotein B concentrations did not substantially alter the strength of this association. Neither the increment of plasma triglyceride during the postprandial period nor the concentrations of other lipoprotein fractions closely reflected the amount of small chylomicron remnants in the circulation or correlated with progression of coronary lesions. Our data suggest that small chylomicron remnants are implicated in the progression of coronary artery disease.

Silveira A, Karpe F, Blombäck M, Steiner G, Walldius G, Hamsten A. 1994. Activation of coagulation factor VII during alimentary lipemia. Arterioscler Thromb, 14 (1), pp. 60-69. | Show Abstract

Dietary studies have established a connection between plasma lipoproteins and coagulation factor VII. The present study was undertaken to specifically examine whether factor VII is activated during alimentary lipemia and to investigate the relations of factor VII mass and activity state with fasting and postprandial lipoproteins and free fatty acids (FFAs). Factor VII levels were therefore determined in plasma samples taken before and after intake of a standardized, oral fat load of a mixed-meal type in 33 men (mean age +/- SD, 48.8 +/- 3.2 years) with a previous myocardial infarction at a young age and 10 healthy, age-matched control subjects. A panel of methods for factor VII determination was used to ensure that changes in all potentially existing forms of the factor during alimentary lipemia would be included. Substantial activation of factor VII was found to occur during alimentary lipemia, whereas the number of factor VII molecules remained constant or even appeared to decrease after the test meal. Activation of factor VII was more pronounced in control subjects than patients, and the proportion of activated factor VII molecules was higher in control subjects. Interestingly, factor VII activation, which correlated quantitatively with the degree of postprandial triglyceridemia, seemed to be related to FFA production during lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that were generated in response to fat intake. Postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activity was lower in patients, which could offer one explanation why factor VII activity was lower during alimentary lipemia in these subjects despite their exaggerated postprandial triglyceridemia. Thus, activation of coagulation factor VII during alimentary lipemia may result in a procoagulant state that is likely to promote the formation of a coronary thrombus in individuals with established coronary artery disease.

Hamsten A, Karpe F, Båvenholm P, Silveira A. 1994. Interactions amongst insulin, lipoproteins and haemostatic function relevant to coronary heart disease. J Intern Med Suppl, 736 pp. 75-88. | Show Abstract

Interest has increased considerably in the past few years in the possible interactions amongst insulin, plasma lipoproteins and several components of the haemostatic system. There is now consistent epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence that hypertriglyceridaemia, in particular, may represent a procoagulant state involving derangements of both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. Imbalance in the haemostatic system secondary to increased clotting activity, impaired fibrinolytic function, or a combination thereof, should influence the growth and final size of evolving thrombi and predispose to arterial occlusion. This might be of particular significance in the coronary circulation, where a hypercoagulable state is likely to promote thrombosis at the site of a suddenly ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. In addition, there is accumulating experimental evidence that the haemostatic system plays a part in plaque formation and plaque growth. Basic research on the link between haemostasis and atherosclerosis should be given high priority, because modulation of haemostatic function will probably be a potent complementary approach to the prevention of coronary heart disease.

Domar U, Karpe F, Hamsten A, Stigbrand T, Olivecrona T. 1993. Human intestinal alkaline phosphatase--release to the blood is linked to lipid absorption, but removal from the blood is not linked to lipoprotein clearance. Eur J Clin Invest, 23 (11), pp. 753-760. | Show Abstract | Read more

To evaluate a possible quantitative relationship between the rise in intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the blood after an oral fat intake, a specific and sensitive immunocatalytic assay was used. First, day to day variation of the basal IAP activity in the blood of eight volunteers was evaluated. One group of subjects with high basal IAP activity and great variations from one day to the other was distinguished from a group with low basal IAP activity and small day to day variations. The subjects with high basal IAP activities were all secretors of red blood cell antigens, while those with low basal IAP activities were non-secretors. The IAP activity in the blood rose after fat rich meals but not after fat free meals. To further investigate this, IAP activities were measured in the blood of 28 men before 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after a standardized oral fat load of a mixed meal type. The activity rose in all individuals and showed a similar time course as the rise in plasma TG concentration. The elevations of the IAP activity were, however, not quantitatively correlated with the elevations in TG concentration, nor were there any relations in time to peak levels. Subjects with high basal IAP increased their IAP activity more than those with low basal IAP, but within neither group there was any correlation between the basal IAP activity and the rise in IAP activity. IAP did not float with lipoproteins on ultracentrifugation of plasma, nor did IAP bind to lipid droplets from a fat emulsion added to plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Karpe F, Steiner G, Olivecrona T, Carlson LA, Hamsten A. 1993. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia. J Clin Invest, 91 (3), pp. 748-758. | Show Abstract | Read more

The metabolism of chylomicron remnants and VLDL was studied in healthy controls and normo- (NTG) and hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients with coronary artery disease after intake of an oral fat load. Specific determination of apo B-48 and B-100 enabled separation of the respective contribution of the two lipoprotein species. The postprandial plasma levels of small (Sf 20-60) and large (Sf 60-400) chylomicron remnants increased in controls and NTG patients. In contrast, only large chylomicron remnants increased in the HTG patients. An increase of large VLDL was seen in response to the oral fat load in all groups, whereas small VLDL were either unchanged in the controls and the NTG patients, or decreased in the HTG patient group. The whole plasma concentration of C apolipoproteins was essentially uninfluenced by the oral fat load, whereas the content in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins paralleled the apo B elevations in controls and NTG patients. An even more prominent increase of apo B in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the HTG group was not accompanied by an increase of C apolipoproteins. These findings indicate that chylomicrons compete with VLDL for removal of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and that the postprandial metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is severely defective in hypertriglyceridemia.

Karpe F, Tornvall P, Olivecrona T, Steiner G, Carlson LA, Hamsten A. 1993. Composition of human low density lipoprotein: effects of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Atherosclerosis, 98 (1), pp. 33-49. | Show Abstract | Read more

A preponderance of small, dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles has been linked to increased risk of myocardial infarction, and a dense and protein-rich LDL has proved to be a characteristic of patients with manifest coronary heart disease (CHD). The present study focused on metabolic determinants of the LDL subfraction distribution with the emphasis placed on alimentary lipaemia. The relations of plasma levels and composition of light (1.019 < d < 1.040 kg/l) and dense (1.040 < d < 1.063 kg/l) LDL subfractions to postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL), postheparin plasma lipase activities and the activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) were studied in 32 men with angiographically ascertained premature coronary atherosclerosis (age 48.8 +/- 3.2 years) and in 10 age matched healthy control men. LDL subfractions were separated by equilibrium density gradient ultracentrifugation of fasting plasma drawn before participants were subjected to an oral fat tolerance test of a mixed meal type. The response of TGRL to the oral fat load was determined by measuring plasma triglycerides, and the apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and apo B-100 content of Sf 60-400 and Sf 20-60 lipoprotein fractions. At a second visit plasma samples were taken for determination of postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities and for measurement of CETP activity. Hypertriglyceridaemic patients had a preponderance of dense LDL particles compared with normotriglyceridaemic patients and controls. The magnitude of the response of TGRL to the oral fat load showed a positive association with the dense LDL apo B concentration (r = 0.32-0.52, P < 0.05), whereas the LPL activity correlated positively with the free (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) and esterified cholesterol (r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and apo B (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) content of the light LDL fraction. The HL activity was found to be inversely associated with the plasma level of light LDL triglycerides (r = -0.38, P < 0.05). In contrast, no relations were noted between CETP activity and plasma concentrations of LDL constituents. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with the proportion of total LDL apo B contained in the dense LDL subfraction (% dense LDL apo B) used as the dependent variable indicated that the combined effect of LPL activity and postprandial plasma levels of TGRL (areas under the curve for plasma triglycerides or Sf 60-400 apo B-48) accounted for around 50% of the variability in the distribution of LDL particles between light and dense subfractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Karpe F, Bard JM, Steiner G, Carlson LA, Fruchart JC, Hamsten A. 1993. HDLs and alimentary lipemia. Studies in men with previous myocardial infarction at a young age. Arterioscler Thromb, 13 (1), pp. 11-22. | Show Abstract

The plasma concentration, particle size, and chemical composition of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) are associated with the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs). During alimentary lipemia there is active exchange of lipids and apolipoproteins between HDL and apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Whereas HDL has been assigned a protective role against the development of atherosclerosis, alimentary lipemia has been proposed to represent a potentially atherogenic state. We examined plasma HDL concentration, particle size, and composition and their relations to postprandial TGRLs in 32 postinfarction patients and 10 healthy control subjects after intake of a standardized oral fat load of a mixed-meal type. All patients had undergone coronary angiographies in connection with the myocardial infarction and around 5 years thereafter. The plasma HDL cholesterol concentration decreased significantly in response to the oral fat load, particularly in hypertriglyceridemic patients, with a concomitant increase of HDL triglycerides. A limited and reversible yet consistent increase of HDL particle size (1-2%) was seen 6 hours after intake of the oral fat load on nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE) in both patients and control subjects. Virtually no changes in the plasma concentration of HDL GGE subclasses, lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein A-I but no apolipoprotein A-II (LpA-I), or lipoproteins containing both apolipoproteins A-I and A-II (LpA-I:A-II) were induced in the postprandial state despite massive increases of large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and large chylomicron remnant levels (determined as apolipoproteins B-100 and B-48 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Strong inverse correlations with fasting plasma HDL cholesterol and the larger HDL GGE subspecies were found for large postprandial VLDL and large chylomicron remnants, whereas the corresponding relations for small VLDL and small chylomicron remnants were weaker. The relations of both large and small VLDL and chylomicron remnants to HDL cholesterol were confined to subjects in the lower fasting plasma HDL cholesterol range (< 1.2 mmol/l). None of the HDL parameters measured, either in the fasting or in the postprandial state (HDL cholesterol, HDL triglycerides, HDL GGE subclasses, LpA-I, and LpA-I:A-II), were related to the development of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas the postprandial plasma levels of small chylomicron remnants, which showed weak negative correlations with HDL, related positively to the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Karpe F, Olivecrona T, Walldius G, Hamsten A. 1992. Lipoprotein lipase in plasma after an oral fat load: relation to free fatty acids. J Lipid Res, 33 (7), pp. 975-984. | Show Abstract

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) releases fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins for use in cellular metabolic reactions. How this hydrolysis, which occurs at the vascular endothelium, is regulated is poorly understood. A fatty acid feedback system has been proposed by which accumulation of fatty acids impedes LPL-catalyzed hydrolysis and dissociates the enzyme from its endothelial binding sites. We examined this hypothesis in humans who were subjected to an oral fat tolerance test of a mixed-meal type. Plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids, and LPL activity were measured before and repeatedly during a 12-h period after intake of the fat load. Since soybean oil with a high content of linoleic fatty acid was the source of triglycerides, a distinction could be made between endogenous free fatty acids (FFA) and FFA derived directly from lipolysis of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mean LPL activity was almost doubled (P less than 0.01) 6 h after intake of the oral fat load. The rise in LPL activity was accompanied by an increase of plasma triglycerides and linoleic free fatty acids (18:2 FFA), but not of total plasma FFA, which instead displayed a heterogeneous pattern with essentially unchanged mean levels. The postprandial response of LPL activity largely paralleled the postprandial responses of 18:2 FFA and triglycerides. The highest degree of parallelism was seen between postprandial 18:2 FFA and LPL activity levels. Furthermore, the integrated response (area under the curve, AUC) for plasma measurements of LPL correlated with the AUC for 18:2 FFA (r = 0.40, P less than 0.05), but not with the AUC for plasma triglycerides (r = 0.21, ns). The high degree of parallelism and significant correlation between postprandial plasma LPL activity and 18:2 FFA support the hypothesis of fatty acid control of endothelial LPL during physiological conditions in humans.

Tornvall P, Karpe F, Carlson LA, Hamsten A. 1991. Relationships of low density lipoprotein subfractions to angiographically defined coronary artery disease in young survivors of myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis, 90 (1), pp. 67-80. | Show Abstract | Read more

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) from 36 young post-infarction patients was separated by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation to determine the relationships of plasma levels and chemical composition of different LDL subfractions to the global severity and rate of progression of coronary atherosclerosis assessed by angiography. There were marked elevations of the cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction, whereas the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was reduced in the patients compared with 70 healthy population-based controls. Plasma total LDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar. The distribution of apolipoprotein B along the LDL density range, viz. the LDL particle distribution, was displaced towards the dense LDL region among the patients compared with 14 healthy normolipidaemic controls. A preponderance of dense LDL particles was associated with elevated plasma VLDL triglyceride concentration. The patients had significantly higher plasma concentrations of lipid and protein in dense LDL (d greater than 1.040 kg/l), while no group differences were found in the light LDL (d less than 1.040 kg/l). However, there were no percentage compositional differences in the light or dense LDL between patients and controls. Among all constituents of lipoprotein fractions and subfractions determined, only the plasma level of triglycerides in both light and dense LDL correlated significantly with the angiographic estimates of global severity and rate of progression of coronary atherosclerosis, respectively. On a percentage composition basis, both light and dense LDL tended to be richer in triglycerides in the subjects with a more severe coronary artery disease. Neither VLDL or HDL, nor LDL cholesterol were associated with the angiographic scores, the plasma LDL triglyceride concentration or the triglyceride enrichment of LDL. Although there is ample experimental evidence that triglyceride-enriched LDL predisposes to atherosclerosis, the LDL associations with coronary lesion severity and progression observed in the present study might not reflect a causal mechanism, but merely mirror the atherogenicity of disturbances affecting the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Prospective studies of larger groups of unselected patients are needed to corroborate these findings.

Karpe F, Regnström J, Tornvall P. 1991. [Can cholesterol lowering treatment have unwanted effects?]. Lakartidningen, 88 (18), pp. 1670-1671.

Karpe F, Regnström J, Tornvall P. 1991. Can cholesterol lowering treatment have unwanted effects? Lakartidningen, 88 (18), pp. 1670-1671.

Karpe F, Johansson J, Carlson LA. 1990. Studies on the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase substrate properties of HDL as determined by its subclass distribution analysed by gradient gel electrophoresis. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1042 (3), pp. 310-314. | Show Abstract | Read more

In order to study the impact of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses on the ability of HDL to act as substrate for lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), we isolated HDL from nine normolipidemic male subjects. The HDL particle size distribution was analysed by gradient gel electrophoresis and the esterification rate of the isolated homologous HDL was compared with a pool of HDL where all the nine subjects took part. It was found that the strongest determinant for HDL cholesterol esterification rate was the inhibitory action of HDL subclass 2B.

Gennser M, Karpe F, Ornhagen HC. 1990. Effects of hyperbaric pressure and temperature on atria from ectotherm animals (Rana pipiens and Anguilla anguilla). Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol, 95 (2), pp. 219-228. | Show Abstract | Read more

1. Spontaneously beating atria from frogs (R. pipiens) and eels (A. anguilla) were compressed hydraulically to 10 MPa. Effects on beating frequency and twitch tension were studied. 2. At low temperatures (8-10 degrees C) compression to 10 MPa caused a slowing of the beat frequency. No effects were noted at higher temperatures (16-24 degrees C). Twitch tension was decreased by pressure at low temperatures and increased at high temperatures. 3. Differences were noted between preparations from cold and warm acclimatized frogs, and from silver and yellow eels, respectively. 4. The effect of temperature acclimatization on pressure and temperature sensitivity is discussed in relation to data on cardiac phospholipid fatty acid composition.

Karpe F, Regnström J, Tornvall P. 1988. [Low cholesterol level--symptom of a disease?]. Lakartidningen, 85 (52), pp. 4609.

Demant T, Carlson LA, Holmquist L, Karpe F, Nilsson-Ehle P, Packard CJ, Shepherd J. 1988. Lipoprotein metabolism in hepatic lipase deficiency: studies on the turnover of apolipoprotein B and on the effect of hepatic lipase on high density lipoprotein. J Lipid Res, 29 (12), pp. 1603-1611. | Show Abstract

Hepatic lipase deficiency produces significant distortion in the plasma lipoprotein profile. Particles with reduced electrophoretic mobility appear in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) increases markedly in the circulation and plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels fall. At the same time there is a mass redistribution within the high density lipoprotein (HDL) spectrum leading to dominance in the less dense HDL2 subfraction. The present study examines apolipoprotein B turnover in a patient with hepatic lipase deficiency. The metabolism of large and small very low density lipoproteins was determined in four control subjects and compared to the pattern seen in the patient. Absence of the enzyme did not affect the rate at which large very low density lipoproteins were converted to smaller particles within this density interval (i.e., of VLDL). However, subsequent transfer of small very low density lipoproteins to intermediate density particles was retarded by 50%, explaining the abnormal accumulation of VLDL in the patient's plasma. Despite this, intermediate density particles accumulated to a level 2.4-times normal because their subsequent conversion to low density lipoprotein has been almost totally inhibited. Consequently, the plasma concentration of low density lipoprotein was only 10% of normal. On the basis of these observations, hepatic lipase appears to be essential for the conversion of small very low density and intermediate density particles to low density lipoproteins. The pathways of direct plasma catabolism of these species were not affected by the enzyme defect. In vitro studies were performed by adding purified hepatic lipase to the patient's plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

DEMANT T, CARLSON L, HOLMQVIST L, KARPE F, NILLSONEHLE P, PACKARD C, SHEPHERD J. 1988. THE METABOLISM OF APO-B CONTAINING LIPOPROTEINS IN A PATIENT WITH HEPATIC LIPASE DEFICIENCY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, 74 (3), pp. 255-255. | Read more

Cronholm T, Neri A, Karpe F, Curstedt T. 1988. Influence of dietary fats on pancreatic phospholipids of chronically ethanol-treated rats. Lipids, 23 (9), pp. 841-846. | Show Abstract | Read more

Male rats were given liquid diets by pair-feeding for 24-30 days, and phosphatidylinositols in pancreas were analyzed as derivatives of diacylglycerols and fatty acids. Addition of arachidonic acid or changing the fat component (35 energy %) in the liquid diet from olive oil/corn oil to oil from Borago officinalis, which contains 22% gamma-linolenic acid, increased the fraction of arachidonoyl-containing species. This fraction was decreased by more than 50% by substituting ethanol for 36 of the 47 energy% provided by carbohydrate. A smaller difference between ethanol-fed and control rats was seen in the composition of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. There was no difference in the composition of phosphatidylinositols when fat, instead of ethanol, was used to substitute the 36 energy % in the diet containing olive oil/corn oil. Substituting ethanol for 28 of 35 energy% provided by fat as corn oil in a liquid diet had no effect on the fraction of arachidonoyl-containing species. The results indicate that the effect of ethanol on phosphatidylinositols in pancreas is not due to a deficiency of arachidonic acid, and that the effect of the ethanol-containing diet is not due to the lowered carbohydrate content. However, high contents of fat or of ethanol appear to be necessary for the effect.

Karpe F, Regnström J, Tornvall P. 1988. Low cholesterol level--symptom of a disease? Lakartidningen, 85 (52), pp. 4609.

Gennser M, Karpe F, Ornhagen HC. 1987. Effects of dietary lipids on frequency and force in atrial muscle at 10 MPa. Undersea Biomed Res, 14 (1), pp. 31-43. | Show Abstract

Spontaneously beating atrial preparations, from rats fed different lipid diets, were compressed to 10 MPa. The following observations were made: Different lipid diets altered the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of the cardiac phospholipids. Beating frequency and twitch tension at surface pressure was unaffected by the diets. Compression to 10 MPa caused a decrease in spontaneous beating frequency and an increased twitch tension in all preparations. The decrease in beating frequency was inversely related to the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Pressure induced increase in twitch tension was not affected by the diets. N2O dissolved in the tissue bath solution partly counteracted the pressure-induced changes.

Karpe F, Wejde J, Anggård E. 1984. Dietary arachidonic acid protects mice against the fatty liver induced by a high fat diet and by ethanol. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh), 55 (2), pp. 95-99. | Show Abstract | Read more

Five groups of NMRI mice were fed ethanol or sucrose in a nutritionally adequate liquid diet for 9 days. The dietary fat consisted of olive oil with the fatty acid composition 18:1 77%, 18:2 10%, 18:0 and 16:0 12%. The ethanol treated groups received 5% w/v ethanol (E) or isocaloric sucrose (S). Two groups (S- and E-) received the diet without supplement. In two groups (S+ and E+) 7% of the fat was exchanged for arachidonic acid (20:4). In a fifth group (IE+) treated with ethanol and arachidonic acid the diet also contained indomethacin (10 mg/l). The mean intake of ethanol was about 20 g/kg/day. After 9 days animals were killed and liver lipids analyzed after Folch extraction. The post mortem accumulation of prostaglandin E2 in the kidney was measured by GC-MS. Dietary 20:4 was found to protect mice against fatty liver caused both by a high fat diet alone and in combination with ethanol. The liver triglycerides were 30.7 +/- 4.3 (S-), 46.1 +/- 6.9 (E-), 6.8 +/- 0.4 (S+) and 19.4 +/- 1.8 (E+). Prostaglandin levels in the kidney were depressed by ethanol treatment. Indomethacin gave variable degrees of PG synthesis inhibition. The degree of liver triglyceride accumulation in the IE+ group was inversely proportional to the degree of PG synthesis. The data suggest a role for liver 20:4 cyclooxygenase metabolites in fatty liver caused by high fat diets and ethanol.

ANGGARD E, KARPE F, LUNDEN I, WEJDE J, JONES A. 1982. DIETARY ARACHIDONIC-ACID PROTECTS MICE AGAINST ETHANOL-INDUCED FATTY LIVER ACTA PHARMACOLOGICA ET TOXICOLOGICA, 51 (Suppl. 1), pp. U22-U22.

Karpe F, Coppack SW. 2002. Fatty acid, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance - Preface JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE, 95 pp. 1-2.

Karpe F, Pinnick KE. 2015. Biology of upper-body and lower-body adipose tissue--link to whole-body phenotypes. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 11 (2), pp. 90-100. | Show Abstract | Read more

The distribution of adipose tissue in the body has wide-ranging and reproducible associations with health and disease. Accumulation of adipose tissue in the upper body (abdominal obesity) is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and even all-cause mortality. Conversely, accumulation of fat in the lower body (gluteofemoral obesity) shows opposite associations with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus when adjusted for overall fat mass. The abdominal depots are characterized by rapid uptake of predominantly diet-derived fat and a high lipid turnover that is easily stimulated by adrenergic receptor activation. The lower-body fat stores have a reduced lipid turnover with a capacity to accommodate fat undergoing redistribution. Lower-body adipose tissue also seems to retain the capacity to recruit additional adipocytes as a result of weight gain and demonstrates fewer signs of inflammatory insult. New data suggest that the profound functional differences between the upper-body and lower-body tissues are controlled by site-specific sets of developmental genes, such as HOXA6, HOXA5, HOXA3, IRX2 and TBX5 in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and HOTAIR, SHOX2 and HOXC11 in gluteofemoral adipose tissue, which are under epigenetic control. This Review discusses the developmental and functional differences between upper-body and lower-body fat depots and provides mechanistic insight into the disease-protective effects of lower-body fat.

Pinnick KE, Nicholson G, Manolopoulos KN, McQuaid SE, Valet P, Frayn KN, Denton N, Min JL et al. 2014. Distinct developmental profile of lower-body adipose tissue defines resistance against obesity-associated metabolic complications. Diabetes, 63 (11), pp. 3785-3797. | Show Abstract | Read more

Upper- and lower-body fat depots exhibit opposing associations with obesity-related metabolic disease. We defined the relationship between DEXA-quantified fat depots and diabetes/cardiovascular risk factors in a healthy population-based cohort (n = 3,399). Gynoid fat mass correlated negatively with insulin resistance after total fat mass adjustment, whereas the opposite was seen for abdominal fat. Paired transcriptomic analysis of gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue (GSAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) was performed across the BMI spectrum (n = 49; 21.4-45.5 kg/m(2)). In both depots, energy-generating metabolic genes were negatively associated and inflammatory genes were positively associated with obesity. However, associations were significantly weaker in GSAT. At the systemic level, arteriovenous release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (n = 34) was lower from GSAT than ASAT. Isolated preadipocytes retained a depot-specific transcriptional "memory" of embryonic developmental genes and exhibited differential promoter DNA methylation of selected genes (HOTAIR, TBX5) between GSAT and ASAT. Short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing identified TBX5 as a regulator of preadipocyte proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in ASAT. In conclusion, intrinsic differences in the expression of developmental genes in regional adipocytes provide a mechanistic basis for diversity in adipose tissue (AT) function. The less inflammatory nature of lower-body AT offers insight into the opposing metabolic disease risk associations between upper- and lower-body obesity.

Marinou K, Hodson L, Vasan SK, Fielding BA, Banerjee R, Brismar K, Koutsilieris M, Clark A, Neville MJ, Karpe F. 2014. Structural and functional properties of deep abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue explain its association with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in men. Diabetes Care, 37 (3), pp. 821-829. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Fat distribution is an important variable explaining metabolic heterogeneity of obesity. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is divided by the Scarpa's fascia into a deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (dSAT) and a superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (sSAT) layer. This study sought to characterize functional differences between the two SAT layers to explore their relative contribution to metabolic traits and cardiovascular risk (CVR) profile. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 371 Caucasians consecutively from a local random, population-based screening project in Oxford and 25 Asian Indians from the local community. The depth of the SAT layers was determined by ultrasound (US), and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies were performed under US guidance in a subgroup of 43 Caucasians. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass was quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. RESULTS: Male adiposity in both ethnic groups was characterized by a disproportionate expansion of dSAT, which was strongly correlated with VAT mass. dSAT depth was a strong predictor of global insulin resistance (IR; homeostatic model assessment of IR), liver-specific IR (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1), and Framingham risk score independently of other measures of adiposity in men. Moreover, dSAT had higher expression of proinflammatory, lipogenic, and lipolytic genes and contained higher proportions of saturated fatty acids. There was increased proportion of small adipocytes in dSAT. CONCLUSIONS: SAT is heterogeneous; dSAT expands disproportionally more than sSAT with increasing obesity in Caucasian males (confirmed also in Asian Indians). Its expansion is related to increased CVR independent of other adiposity measures, and it has biological properties suggestive of higher metabolic activity contributing to global IR.

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Talmud PJ, Shah S, Whittall R, Futema M, Howard P, Cooper JA, Harrison SC, Li K et al. 2013. Use of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol gene score to distinguish patients with polygenic and monogenic familial hypercholesterolaemia: A case-control study The Lancet, 381 (9874), pp. 1293-1301. | Show Abstract | Read more

Background Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in three known genes. DNA-based cascade testing is recommended by UK guidelines to identify affected relatives; however, about 60% of patients are mutation-negative. We assessed the hypothesis that familial hypercholesterolaemia can also be caused by an accumulation of common small-effect LDL-C-raising alleles. Methods In November, 2011, we assembled a sample of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia from three UKbased sources and compared them with a healthy control sample from the UK Whitehall II (WHII) study. We also studied patients from a Belgian lipid clinic (Hopital de Jolimont, Haine St-Paul, Belgium) for validation analyses. We genotyped participants for 12 common LDL-C-raising alleles identified by the Global Lipid Genetics Consortium and constructed a weighted LDL-C-raising gene score. We compared the gene score distribution among patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia with no confirmed mutation, those with an identified mutation, and controls from WHII. Findings We recruited 321 mutation-negative UK patients (451 Belgian), 319 mutation-positive UK patients (273 Belgian), and 3020 controls from WHII. The mean weighted LDL-C gene score of the WHII participants (0.90 [SD 0.23]) was strongly associated with LDL-C concentration (p=1.4 × 10-77; R2=0.11). Mutation-negative UK patients had a significantly higher mean weighted LDL-C score (1.0 [SD 0.21]) than did WHII controls (p=4.5 × 10-16), as did the mutation-negative Belgian patients (0.99 [0.19]; p=5.2 × 10 -20). The score was also higher in UK (0.95 [0.20]; p=1.6 × 10-5) and Belgian (0.92 [0.20]; p=0.04) mutation-positive patients than in WHII controls. 167 (52%) of 321 mutation-negative UK patients had a score within the top three deciles of the WHII weighted LDL-C gene score distribution, and only 35 (11%) fell within the lowest three deciles. Interpretation In a substantial proportion of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia without a known mutation, their raised LDL-C concentrations might have a polygenic cause, which could compromise the efficiency of cascade testing. In patients with a detected mutation, a substantial polygenic contribution might add to the variable penetrance of the disease.

Pinnick KE, Neville MJ, Fielding BA, Frayn KN, Karpe F, Hodson L. 2012. Gluteofemoral adipose tissue plays a major role in production of the lipokine palmitoleate in humans. Diabetes, 61 (6), pp. 1399-1403. | Show Abstract | Read more

The expansion of lower-body adipose tissue (AT) is paradoxically associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk. We examined whether the beneficial metabolic properties of lower-body AT are related to the production and release of the insulin-sensitizing lipokine palmitoleate (16:1n-7). Using venoarterial difference sampling, we investigated the relative release of 16:1n-7 from lower-body (gluteofemoral) and upper-body (abdominal subcutaneous) AT depots. Paired gluteofemoral and abdominal subcutaneous AT samples were analyzed for triglyceride fatty acid composition and mRNA expression. Finally, the triglyceride fatty acid composition of isolated human preadipocytes was determined. Relative release of 16:1n-7 was markedly higher from gluteofemoral AT compared with abdominal subcutaneous AT. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the key enzyme involved in endogenous 16:1n-7 production, was more highly expressed in gluteofemoral AT and was associated with greater enrichment of 16:1n-7. Furthermore, isolated human preadipocytes from gluteofemoral AT displayed a higher content of SCD1-derived fatty acids. We demonstrate that human gluteofemoral AT plays a major role in determining systemic concentrations of the lipokine palmitoleate. Moreover, this appears to be an inherent feature of gluteofemoral AT. We propose that the beneficial metabolic properties of lower-body AT may be partly explained by the intrinsically greater production and release of palmitoleate.

Gill PJ, Harnden A, Karpe F. 2012. Familial hypercholesterolaemia. BMJ, 344 (7860), pp. e3228. | Read more

Karpe F, Dickmann JR, Frayn KN. 2011. Fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance: time for a reevaluation. Diabetes, 60 (10), pp. 2441-2449. | Read more

McQuaid SE, Hodson L, Neville MJ, Dennis AL, Cheeseman J, Humphreys SM, Ruge T, Gilbert M, Fielding BA, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2011. Downregulation of adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking in obesity: a driver for ectopic fat deposition? Diabetes, 60 (1), pp. 47-55. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Lipotoxicity and ectopic fat deposition reduce insulin signaling. It is not clear whether excess fat deposition in nonadipose tissue arises from excessive fatty acid delivery from adipose tissue or from impaired adipose tissue storage of ingested fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To investigate this we used a whole-body integrative physiological approach with multiple and simultaneous stable-isotope fatty acid tracers to assess delivery and transport of endogenous and exogenous fatty acid in adipose tissue over a diurnal cycle in lean (n = 9) and abdominally obese men (n = 10). RESULTS: Abdominally obese men had substantially (2.5-fold) greater adipose tissue mass than lean control subjects, but the rates of delivery of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were downregulated, resulting in normal systemic NEFA concentrations over a 24-h period. However, adipose tissue fat storage after meals was substantially depressed in the obese men. This was especially so for chylomicron-derived fatty acids, representing the direct storage pathway for dietary fat. Adipose tissue from the obese men showed a transcriptional signature consistent with this impaired fat storage function. CONCLUSIONS: Enlargement of adipose tissue mass leads to an appropriate downregulation of systemic NEFA delivery with maintained plasma NEFA concentrations. However the implicit reduction in adipose tissue fatty acid uptake goes beyond this and shows a maladaptive response with a severely impaired pathway for direct dietary fat storage. This adipose tissue response to obesity may provide the pathophysiological basis for ectopic fat deposition and lipotoxicity.

Ruge T, Hodson L, Cheeseman J, Dennis AL, Fielding BA, Humphreys SM, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2009. Fasted to fed trafficking of Fatty acids in human adipose tissue reveals a novel regulatory step for enhanced fat storage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 94 (5), pp. 1781-1788. | Show Abstract | Read more

CONTEXT: Absence or excess of adipose tissue are both associated with metabolic complications, implying the importance of well-functioning adipose tissue present in normal amounts. Adipose tissue sequesters dietary fat and thus protects other tissues from excess fat exposure, especially after meals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was the use of an integrative physiological technique to quantify trafficking of fatty acids (FAs) in adipose tissue over a 24 h period. METHODS: Adipose tissue FA handling was studied in response to three meals in eight healthy men by the combination of arteriovenous blood sampling, tissue blood flow, and specific labeling of FA tracing of exogenous and endogenous fat by stable isotope methodology. RESULTS: The efficiency of adipose tissue FA uptake increased robustly with each meal. Chylomicron-triglyceride was the dominating source of FA. Adipose tissue fractional extraction of chylomicron-triglyceride increased from 21 +/- 4 to 47 +/- 8% (P = 0.03) between the first and last meal. Although adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase action increased with time (2-fold), there was an even greater increase in FA reesterification (3-fold), which led to a reduced spillover of chylomicron-derived FA, from 77 +/- 15 to 34 +/- 7% (P = 0.04) comparing the end of the first and the third meal period. Increased uptake of very low-density lipoprotein-derived FA was observed, but spillover of very low-density lipoprotein-derived FA was seen only in the fasting state. CONCLUSION: Human adipose tissue has a significant potential to up-regulate fat storage during a normal day that goes beyond increased lipoprotein lipase activation. The adaptation toward increasing fat storage may provide an explanation for the beneficial properties of normal amounts of adipose tissue.

Tan GD, Savage DB, Fielding BA, Collins J, Hodson L, Humphreys SM, O'Rahilly S, Chatterjee K, Frayn KN, Karpe F. 2008. Fatty acid metabolism in patients with PPARgamma mutations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 93 (11), pp. 4462-4470. | Show Abstract | Read more

CONTEXT: PPARG mutations may cause insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, but little is known about the mechanisms of the abnormalities of lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that in PPARG mutations, abnormal adipose tissue triglyceride storage causes insulin resistance. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whole-body and adipose tissue-specific metabolic phenotyping through arteriovenous blood sampling was made before and after a mixed meal including 13C-palmitic acid. Studies were performed in a 32-yr-old male with partial lipodystrophy and type 2 diabetes, heterozygous for the PPARG P467L mutation and in an apparently phenotypically normal 32-yr-old male heterozygous for the PPARG n.AAA553T mutation. Comparator groups were age- and sex-matched healthy participants (n=10) and type 2 diabetes sex-matched participants (n=6). RESULTS: The P467L patient had elevated unmodulated fasting and postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, despite a low adipose tissue NEFA output. Instead, NEFA appeared to originate directly from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins: 13C-palmitic acid accumulated rapidly in the NEFA fraction, as a sign of impaired fatty acid trapping in tissues. In contrast to the Pparg haploinsufficient mouse, the patient with n.AAA553T mutation did not exhibit paradoxically insulin sensitive and showed a mostly normal metabolic pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The lipodystrophic PPARG P467L phenotype include excessive and uncontrolled generation of NEFA directly from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, explaining high systemic NEFA concentrations, whereas the human PPARG haploinsufficiency is metabolically almost normal.

Risérus U, Sprecher D, Johnson T, Olson E, Hirschberg S, Liu A, Fang Z, Hegde P et al. 2008. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta promotes reversal of multiple metabolic abnormalities, reduces oxidative stress, and increases fatty acid oxidation in moderately obese men. Diabetes, 57 (2), pp. 332-339. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta agonists and transgenic overexpression of PPARdelta in mice suggest amelioration of features of the metabolic syndrome through enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize a similar mechanism operates in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The PPARdelta agonist (10 mg o.d. GW501516), a comparator PPARalpha agonist (20 mug o.d. GW590735), and placebo were given in a double-blind, randomized, three-parallel group, 2-week study to six healthy moderately overweight subjects in each group. Metabolic evaluation was made before and after treatment including liver fat quantification, fasting blood samples, a 6-h meal tolerance test with stable isotope fatty acids, skeletal muscle biopsy for gene expression, and urinary isoprostanes for global oxidative stress. RESULTS: Treatment with GW501516 showed statistically significant reductions in fasting plasma triglycerides (-30%), apolipoprotein B (-26%), LDL cholesterol (-23%), and insulin (-11%), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. A 20% reduction in liver fat content (P < 0.05) and 30% reduction in urinary isoprostanes (P = 0.01) were also observed. Except for a lowering of triglycerides (-30%, P < 0.05), none of these changes were observed in response to GW590735. The relative proportion of exhaled CO(2) directly originating from the fat content of the meal was increased (P < 0.05) in response to GW501516, and skeletal muscle expression of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1b (CPT1b) was also significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: The PPARdelta agonist GW501516 reverses multiple abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome without increasing oxidative stress. The effect is probably caused by increased fat oxidation in skeletal muscle.

Frayling TM, Timpson NJ, Weedon MN, Zeggini E, Freathy RM, Lindgren CM, Perry JR, Elliott KS et al. 2007. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science, 316 (5826), pp. 889-894. | Show Abstract | Read more

Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

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